Main Article Content
The World Health Organization (WHO) data proposes that 8.5% of reported COVID-19 cases belong to pediatric population who are aged less than 18 years. Supportive care alone is recommended in asymptomatic, mild, or moderate pediatric COVID-19 patients by the panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions. This review article focuses on the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Urai mathirai in the management of pediatric COVID-19 patients. The literature was looked, in databases such as Medline/PubMed Central/PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of science, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ), and reference lists to distinguish published manuscripts relevant to the use of Urai mathirai to prevent or treat COVID-19 in children. The herbs found in Urai Mathirai and their bioactive phytoconstituents possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory and other pharmacological effects relevant to the management of signs and manifestations of COVID-19. The viability of Urai Mathirai in the prophylaxis and management of pediatric COVID-19 patients could further be established by future clinical studies.
WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. [Accessed 23 August 2021]; Available:https://covid19.who.int/
WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Q&A. [Accessed 01 Aug 2021]; Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-schools
Aleebrahim-Dehkordi E, Soveyzi F, Deravi N, Rabbani Z, Saghazadeh A, Rezaei N. Human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in children. Journal of pediatric nursing. 2020;56:70-79.
Badal S, Bajgain KT, Badal S, Thapa R, Bajgain BB, Santana MJ. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of pediatric COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2020;135: 104715. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104715
Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Why is COVID-19 less severe in children? A review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Archives of disease in childhood. 2021;106(5):429-39.
Zare-Zardini H, Soltaninejad H, Ferdosian F, Hamidieh AA, Memarpoor-Yazdi M. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children: prevalence, diagnosis, clinical symptoms, and treatment. International journal of general medicine. 2020;13:477-82.
Jat KR, Sankar J, Das RR, Ratageri VH, Choudhary B, Bhat JI, Mishra B, Bhatnagar S, Behera B, Charoo B, Goyal J. Clinical profile and risk factors for severe disease in 402 children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 from India: Collaborative Indian Pediatric COVID Study Group. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics; 2021. DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmab048
Suryawanshi SY, Priya S, Sinha SS, Soni S, Haidry N, Verma S, Singh S. Dynamic profile and clinical implications of hematological and immunological parameters in COVID-19 patients. A retrospective study. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021;10(7):2518. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2400_20
Shah K, Upadhyaya M, Kandre Y, Pandya A, Saraf V, Saxena D, Mavalankar D. Epidemiological, clinical and biomarker profile of pediatric patients infected with COVID-19. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. 2021;hcab 206. DOI: 10.1093/qjmed/hcab206
Ward J, Harwood R, Smith C, Kenny SE, Clark M, Davis PJ, Draper ES, Hargreaves D, Ladhani SN, Linney M, Luyt K. Risk factors for intensive care admission and death amongst children and young people admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS in England during the first pandemic year. medRxiv; 2021. DOI: 10.1101/2021.07.01.21259785
Tsankov BK, Allaire JM, Irvine MA, Lopez AA, Sauvé LJ, Vallance BA, Jacobson K. Severe COVID-19 infection and pediatric comorbidities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020; 103: 246-56.
Verma S, Lumba R, Dapul HM, Gold-von Simson G, Phoon CK, Lighter JL, Farkas JS, Vinci A, Noor A, Raabe VN, Rhee D. Characteristics of hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City metropolitan area. Hospital Pediatrics. 2021;11(1):71-8.
Remppis J, Ganzenmueller T, Vasconcelos MK, Heinzel O, Handgretinger R, Renk H. A case series of children and young people admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Germany with COVID-19. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2021;21(1):1-6.
Haslak F, Yıldız M, Adrovic A, Şahin S, Barut K, Kasapçopur Ö. A recently explored aspect of the iceberg named COVID-19: multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Turkish Archives of Pediatrics. 2021;56(1):3.
Esposito S, Principi N. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to SARS-CoV-2. Pediatric Drugs. 2021;23(2):119-29.
Vogel TP, Top KA, Karatzios C, Hilmers DC, Tapia LI, Moceri P, Giovannini-Chami L, Wood N, Chandler RE, Klein NP, Schlaudecker EP. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adults (MIS-C/A): Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2021;39(22):3037-49.
Keshavarz P, Yazdanpanah F, Azhdari S, Kavandi H, Nikeghbal P, Bazyar A, Rafiee F, Nejati SF, Sadabad FE, Rezaei N. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19): A Systematic Review of 133 Children Presented with Kawasaki‐like Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome. Journal of Medical Virology; 2021. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.27067
Feldstein LR, Tenforde MW, Friedman KG, Newhams M, Rose EB, Dapul H, Soma VL, Maddux AB, Mourani PM, Bowens C, Maamari M. Characteristics and outcomes of US children and adolescents with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) compared with severe acute COVID-19. Jama. 2021;325(11):1074-87.
Tolunay O, Çelik Ü, Arslan İ, Orgun A, Demir H, Demir O, Dağdelen EÇ. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19: A case series experience in a tertiary care hospital of southern Turkey. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2021;67(2):fmab050. DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmab050
Matucci-Cerinic C, Caorsi R, Consolaro A, Rosina S, Civino A, Ravelli A. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: unique disease or part of the Kawasaki disease spectrum?. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2021;9:531.
Mohsin SS, Abbas Q, Chowdhary D, Khalid F, Sheikh AS, Ali Khan ZG, Aslam N, Bhatti OA, Inam M, Saleem AF, Bhutta AT. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in Pakistani children: A description of the phenotypes and comparison with historical cohorts of children with Kawasaki disease and myocarditis. Plos one. 2021;16(6):e0253625.
Bar-Meir M, Guri A, Godfrey ME, Shack AR, Hashkes PJ, Goldzweig O, Megged O. Characterizing the differences between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease. Scientific Reports. 2021;11(1):1-5.
Maideen NMP. Recent Updates in the Pharmacological Management of COVID-19. Letters in Applied NanoBioScience. 2021;1:1969-80. DOI: 10.33263/LIANBS101.19691980
Chiotos K, Hayes M, Kimberlin DW, Jones SB, James SH, Pinninti SG, Yarbrough A, Abzug MJ, MacBrayne CE, Soma VL, Dulek DE. Multicenter interim guidance on use of antivirals for children with coronavirus disease 2019/Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 2021;10(1):34-48.
Maideen NMP. Adjuvant Therapies of COVID-19 - A Literature Review. Coronaviruses; 2021. DOI: 10.2174/2666796702666210121144902
Kiss A, Ryan PM, Mondal T. Management of COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A comprehensive literature review. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology. 2021;101381.
Mahalwar A, Mahalwar V. Preventive measures against COVID-19: Indian system of medicine. International Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2021;01-12.
Maideen NM. Therapeutic efficacy of kabasura kudineer (siddha formulation), in COVID-19 – A review of clinical and molecular docking studies. Asian Journal of Advances in Research. 2021;9(4):68-75.
Maideen NM. Nilavembu Kudineer (Siddha Formulation) for the Management of COVID-19 – Evidences from Clinical and In-silico Studies. Lett Appl NanoBioSci. 2021; 11(2).
Sathiyarajeswaran P, Shree Devi MS, Sunil Kumar KN, MuthuTamizh M, Satheesh D, Brindha S, et al. Quality Standards for UraiMathirai- A Siddha Immunomodulator Formulation for Children. The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2018;7(1):40- 44.
Mersh S, Dharani M, Alamelu J, Sabira Sherin K, Thomas M Walter. The multi-faceted role of urai mathirai – The immune pill of siddha. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2017;10(2):29-38.
Rajput SB, Tonge MB, Karuppayil SM. An overview on traditional uses and pharmacological profile of Acorus calamus Linn.(Sweet flag) and other Acorus species. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(3):268-76.
Kumar SS, Akram AS, Ahmed TF, Jaabir MM. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus rhizome. Oriental Journal of Chemistry. 2010;26(1):223-7.
Chandra D, Prasad K. Phytochemicals of Acorus calamus (Sweet flag). Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 2017;5(5):277-81.
Imam H, Riaz Z, Azhar M, Sofi G, Hussain A. Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn.): An incredible medicinal herb. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP). 2013;7(4):288-96.
Umamaheshwari N, Rekha A. Sweet flag: (Acarus calamus)–An incredible medicinal herb. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018;7(6):15-22.
Bisht AS, Chauhan RS. Acorus calamus L. a valuable medicinal plant from Himalaya. Medicinal Plants-International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries. 2014;6(4):247-53.
Tanigasalam V, Bhat BV, Adhisivam B, Plakkal N, Kumar KH. Vasambu (Acorus calamus) administration: A harmful infant rearing practice in South India. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2017;84(10):802-3.
Abourashed EA, El-Alfy AT. Chemical diversity and pharmacological significance of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Phytochemistry Reviews. 2016;15(6):1035-56.
Ali MA, Hamiduddin MZ, Ikram M. Phyto-pharmacological potential of Jaiphal (Myristica fragrans Houtt): A spice of medicinal importance and its utilization in Unani Medicine. Int J Green Pharm. 2018;12(1):S26-36.
Maya KM. Chemical composition of essential oil of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) acces. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 2004;13(2):135-9.
Jain R, Tiwari A. Biological monograph: Myristica fragrans. Matrix Science Medica. 2020;4(3):85.
Dhaslin YF, Issac R, Prabha ML. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and health benefits of nutmeg. Drug Invention Today. 2019;12(1):167-9.
Bag A, Bhattacharyya SK, Chattopadhyay RR. The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 2013;3(3):244-52.
Dinesh MD, Soorya TM, Vismaya MR, Janardhanan D, Athira TP, Nidhin KB, Ajeesh PP. Terminalia Chebula A Traditional Herbal Drug–A Short Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. 2017;6(21):39-40.
Jain R, Tiwari A. Biological monograph: Haritaki (Terminalia chebula). Matrix Science Pharma. 2020;4(2):65-67.
Nigam M, Mishra AP, Adhikari‐Devkota A, Dirar AI, Hassan MM, Adhikari A, Belwal T, Devkota HP. Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.: A review on traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytotherapy Research. 2020;34(10):2518-33.
Ashwini R, Gajalakshmi S, Mythili S, Sathiavelu A. Terminalia chebula-a pharmacological review. J Pharm Res. 2011;4(9):2884-7.
Meher SK, Panda P, Das B, Bhuyan GC, Rath KK. Pharmacological profile of Terminalia chebula Retz. and Willd.(Haritaki) in Ayurveda with evidences. Research journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2018;10(3):115-24.
Sharma S, Singh B, Kumar H. A Critical Review of Pharmacological Actions of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz) In Classical Texts. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences. 2019;4(04):258-69.
Ajala OS, Jukov A, Ma CM. Hepatitis C virus inhibitory hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. Fitoterapia. 2014;99:117-23.
Mohammadi-Sichani M, Karbasizadeh V, Dokhaharani SC. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans. Dental research journal. 2016;13(1):46-51.
Mahboubi M. Quercus infectoria fruit hulls and galls and female genital disorders. Clinical Phytoscience. 2020;6(1):1-6.
Liu W, Jiang Z, Chen J, Zhang X and Ma Y. Chemical constituents from Piper longum. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 2009;34:2891–4.
Choudhary N, Singh V. A census of P. longum’s phytochemicals and their network pharmacological evaluation for identifying novel drug-like molecules against various diseases, with a special focus on neurological disorders. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0191006.
Kumar S, Kamboj J, Sharma S. Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper longum linn. fruit. Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies. 2011;4(2):134-40.
Yadav V, Krishnan A, Vohora D. A systematic review on Piper longum L.: Bridging traditional knowledge and pharmacological evidence for future translational research. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2020;247:112255.
Singh V, Kumar R. Study of phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum of Bundelkhand region. International Journal of Life-Sciences Scientific Research. 2017;3(6):1451-8.
Shang A, Cao SY, Xu XY, Gan RY, Tang GY, Corke H, Mavumengwana V, Li HB. Bioactive compounds and biological functions of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Foods. 2019;8(7):246.
Abdelrahman M, Hirata S, Mukae T, Yamada T, Sawada Y, El-Syaed M, Yamada Y, Sato M, Hirai MY, Shigyo M. Comprehensive metabolite profiling in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected from different geographical regions. Molecules. 2021;26(5):1415.
El-Saber Batiha G, Magdy Beshbishy A, G Wasef L, Elewa YH, A Al-Sagan A, El-Hack A, Mohamed E, Taha AE, M Abd-Elhakim Y, Prasad Devkota H. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of garlic (Allium sativum L.): A review. Nutrients. 2020;12(3):872.
Dorrigiv M, Zareiyan A, Hosseinzadeh H. Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities: A comprehensive update review. Phytotherapy Research. 2020;34(8):1770-97.
Jayashree E, Visvanathan R, Zachariah J. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods. Journal of food science and technology. 2014;51(11):3190-8.
Liu Y, Liu J, Zhang Y. Research progress on chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. BioMed research international; 2019.
Ali AM, El-Nour ME, Yagi SM. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizome, callus and callus treated with some elicitors. Journal of genetic engineering and biotechnology. 2018;16(2):677-82.
Mao QQ, Xu XY, Cao SY, Gan RY, Corke H, Li HB. Bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Foods. 2019;8(6):185.
Kandasamy J, Desigan Y, Mansoor NR. A Literature Review of Sukku (Zingiber officinale) Related to Its Medicine in Traditional Medicine in Sri Lanka. Middle East Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2020;3(4):81-105.
Morvaridzadeh M, Fazelian S, Agah S, Khazdouz M, Rahimlou M, Agh F, Potter E, Heshmati S, Heshmati J. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on inflammatory markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cytokine. 2020;135:155224.
Batiha GE, Beshbishy AM, El-Mleeh A, Abdel-Daim MM, Devkota HP. Traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.(Fabaceae). Biomolecules. 2020;10(3):352.
Sharifi-Rad J, Quispe C, Herrera-Bravo J, Belén LH, Kaur R, Kregiel D, Uprety Y, Beyatli A, Yeskaliyeva B, Kırkın C, Özçelik B. Glycyrrhiza Genus: Enlightening Phytochemical Components for Pharmacological and Health-Promoting Abilities. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity; 2021.
Chandra JH, Gunasekaran H. Screening of phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of glycyrrhiz glabra root extract. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2017;38(1):161.
Esmaeili H, Karami A, Hadian J, Saharkhiz MJ, Ebrahimi SN. Variation in the phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra populations collected in Iran. Industrial Crops and Products. 2019;137:248-59.
Mutaillifu P, Bobakulov K, Abuduwaili A, Huojiaaihemaiti H, Nuerxiati R, Aisa HA, Yili A. Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of a water soluble polysaccharide isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2020;144:751-9.
Pastorino G, Cornara L, Soares S, Rodrigues F, Oliveira MB. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Phytotherapy research. 2018;32(12):2323-39.
Frattaruolo L, Carullo G, Brindisi M, Mazzotta S, Bellissimo L, Rago V, Curcio R, Dolce V, Aiello F, Cappello AR. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of flavanones from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.(licorice) leaf phytocomplexes: Identification of licoflavanone as a modulator of NF-kB/MAPK pathway. Antioxidants. 2019;8(6):186.
Hasan MK, Ara I, Mondal MS, Kabir Y. Phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and potential health benefits of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Heliyon. 2021;e07240.
Mahendra P, Bisht S. Ferula asafoetida: Traditional uses and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy reviews. 2012;6(12):141.
Sonigra P, Meena M. Metabolic profile, bioactivities, and variations in the chemical constituents of essential oils of the Ferula genus (Apiaceae). Frontiers in pharmacology. 2021;11:2328.
Niazmand R, Razavizadeh BM. Ferula asafoetida: chemical composition, thermal behavior, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf and gum hydroalcoholic extracts. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2021;58(6):2148-59.
Karwa PN, Ingole RD, Thalkari AB. A Systemic Review on Ferula asafoetida. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants in Ayurveda. 2021;1(2):26-34.
Amalraj A, Gopi S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Asafoetida: A review. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. 2017;7(3):347-59.
Upadhyay PK. Pharmacological activities and therapeutic uses of resins obtained from Ferula asafoetida Linn.: A Review. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP). 2017;11(02).
Dissanayake KG, Perera WP. Medicinal importance of Ferula asafetida oligogum resins against infective diseases. J. Med. Plants Stud. 2020;8:135-9.
Usmani A, Khushtar M, Arif M, Siddiqui MA, Sing SP, Mujahid M. Pharmacognostic and phytopharmacology study of Anacyclus pyrethrum: An insight. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2016;6(03):144-50.
Jawhari FZ, El Moussaoui A, Bourhia M, Imtara H, Mechchate H, Es-Safi I, Ullah R, Ezzeldin E, Mostafa GA, Grafov A, Ibenmoussa S. Anacyclus pyrethrum (L): Chemical composition, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties. Molecules. 2020;25(22):5469.
Kerboua KA, Benosmane L, Namoune S, Ouled-Diaf K, Ghaliaoui N, Bendjeddou D. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the hot water-soluble polysaccharides from Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag. roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2021;114491.
Manouze H, Bouchatta O, Gadhi AC, Bennis M, Sokar Z, Ba-M’hamed S. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:598.
Wang J, Jiang M, Chen X, Montaner LJ. Cytokine storm and leukocyte changes in mild versus severe SARS‐CoV‐2 infection: Review of 3939 COVID‐19 patients in China and emerging pathogenesis and therapy concepts. Journal of leukocyte biology. 2020 ;108(1):17-41.
Xie B, Zhang J, Li Y, Yuan S, Shang Y. COVID-19: Imbalanced immune responses and potential immunotherapies. Frontiers in Immunology. 2021;11:3849.
Khosroshahi LM, Rezaei N. Dysregulation of the immune response in coronavirus disease 2019. Cell Biology International. 2021;45(4):702-7.
Torabi-Rahvar M, Rezaei N. Storm at the time of corona: A glimpse at the current understanding and therapeutic opportunities of the SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2021;27(13):1549- 52.
Rios-Navarro C, Dios ED, Forteza MJ, Bodi V. Unraveling the thread of uncontrolled immune response in COVID-19 and STEMI: An emerging need for knowledge sharing. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2021;320(6):H2240-54.
Ni Y, Alu A, Lei H, Wang Y, Wu M, Wei X. Immunological perspectives on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Molecular Biomedicine. 2021;2(1):1-26.
Sathiyarajeswaran P, Patturayan R, Dayanand RG, Narasimha KGV, Chitikela PP. Experimental Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Urai mathirai – A Siddha Formulation. Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;9(1):4839-44.
Dayanand RG, Sathiyarajeswaran P, Patturayan R, Ganesan R, Narasimha KGV, Dhanaraj K, Rama Devi B. Evaluation of acute, sub acute toxicity and immunomodulatory activity of urai mathirai-siddha herbal formulation. Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;10(3):6372-82.
Gaddam DR, Sathiyarajeswaran P, Patturayan R, Ganesan R, GV NK, Pullaiah CP. Evaluation of Chronic toxicity of Urai mathirai-Siddha Herbal Formulation. Authorea Preprints; 2020. DOI: 10.22541/au.158765852.23761913