REVIEW OF MAJOR CEREAL CROPS PRODUCTION LOSSES, QUALITY DETERIORATION OF GRAINS BY WEEDS AND ITS PREVENTION IN ETHIOPIA

Main Article Content

MULUADAM BERHAN
DEMISEW BEKELE

Abstract

Grain production plays a vital role in feeding an ever-increasing world population. Among grain crops that are serving as a food source, rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, and barley rank the most important ones. However, the production status of important cereals is highly reduced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Amongst these, weeds are key production constraints that reduce yield and deteriorate the quality of crops product. This paper was aimed to review studies that were conducted on the effect of weeds in crops production both on quantitative as well as qualitative losses. Weeds affect crops by competing for light, moisture, nutrients, and space, and produce seeds by suppressing crop plants faster. Crop yield losses are estimated at 10 to 90% depending on the crop type and area. On a crops basis, total losses are estimated about as high as 26–29%, 31%, 90%, 60%, 64% for wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, and barley, respectively if good weed control is not carried out. The negative impact of weeds on the quality of grains ultimately reduces the market value, nutritional status, and viability of the crop’s seeds. Therefore, it is crucial to managing weeds infestation through the application of integrated weed management strategies that can be cultural practices, use of herbicides, manual and mechanical weeding including a quarantine control system.

Keywords:
Competition, integrated weed management, qualitative loss, quantitative loss, weed infestation

Article Details

How to Cite
BERHAN, M., & BEKELE, D. (2021). REVIEW OF MAJOR CEREAL CROPS PRODUCTION LOSSES, QUALITY DETERIORATION OF GRAINS BY WEEDS AND ITS PREVENTION IN ETHIOPIA. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 11(4), 93-104. Retrieved from http://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/2599
Section
Review Article

References

Macauley H, Ramadjita T. Cereal crops: Rice, maize, millet, sorghum, wheat. Feeding Africa. Abou Diou international conference center. Dahar Senegal; 2015.

Mesterhazy A, Judit O, Jozsef P. Losses in the grain supply chain: Causes and solutions. Sustainability. 2020; 12: 2342. Available:http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability

Lopez-Granados F. Weed detection for site-specific weed management: Mapping and real-time approaches. Weed Research. 2011l51: 1-11.

Belete B, Dawit D, Zemach S. Effect of weed management on yield components and yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at wolaita sodo in Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry. 2018;5: 34-43.

Uddin MK, Juraimi AS, Ismail MR, Brosnan JT. Characterizing weed populations in different turfgrass sites throughout the Klang valley of western peninsular Malaysia. Weed Technol. 2010; 24: 173–181.

Mohammed A, Tadesse A. Review of major grains postharvest losses in Ethiopia and customization of a loss assessment methodology. USAID/Ethiopia Agriculture Knowledge, Learning, Documentation and Policy Project, Addis Ababa; 2018.

Tesfaye A, Sharma JJ, Kassahun Z. Effect of weed control methods on weeds and wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) yield. World journal of agricultural research. 2014; 2: 124-128.

Oerkece EC. Crop losses to pests. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2006; 144: 31-43.

Kiss I. Significance of wheat production in world economy and position of Hungary in it. Abstract: Applied studies in agribusiness and commerce [Thesis]. University of Debrecen; 2011.

Falola A, Achem BA, Oloyede WO, Olawuyi GO. Determinants of commercial production of wheat in Nigeria: A case study of Bakura local government area, Zamfara state. Trakia Journal of Sciences. 2017; 15(4): 397–404. Available:https://doi.org/10.15547/ tjs.2017.04.024

CSA (Central Statistics Agency). Agricultural sample survey report on area and production of major crops. Statistical Bulletin. 2014; VI.

Hassan G, Maarrawat KB. Integrated weed management in crops Proceedings of the National Workshop on Technologies for sustainable Agriculture. September 24-26, 2001NIAB. Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2001;27-34.

Khan M, Haq N. Wheat crop yield loss assessment due to weeds. Sarhad J. Agri. 2002; 18: 449-453.

Hussain S, Khaliq A, Matloob A, Fahad S, Tanveer A. Interference and economic threshold level of little seed canary grass in wheat under different sowing times. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. 2015; 22: 441-449.

Bedhadha S, Negewo T. Effect of weed management on yield components and yield of bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) at Wolaita Sodo in. 2018; 5(10): 34–43.

Oad FC, Siddiqui MH, Buriro UA. Growth and yield losses in wheat due to different weed densities. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2007; 6: 173-176.

Atnafu D. Weed management methods on yield and yield components of bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L). International Journal of Research and Innovations in Earth Science. 2019; 6: 2394-1375.

Amare T, Cherukuri VR, Takele Z. Productivity, yield attributes, and weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influenced by integrated weed management in central high lands of Ethiopia, East Africa. Adv Crop Sci Tech. 2016; 4:1. DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000206

Smith RJJ. Weeds of major economic importance in rice and yield losses due to weed competition. International Rice Research Inst., College, Laguna (Philippines); (1981). Available:https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=XB8110640, retrieved on June 08, 2020.

Hakim MA, Juraimi AS, Ismail MR, Hanafi MM, Selamat A. Distribution of weed population in the costal rice growing area of kedah in peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Agronomy. 2010; 9: 9-16.

Rodenburg J, Johnson DE. Weed management in rice-based cropping systems in Africa. Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press. 2009; 103: 149-218.

Anthony NP, Daniel KK, Godfrey A, Michael O, Jimmy L, Geoffrey O, Stella EO. Quality rice seed production manual. CABI Africa, National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), and National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO). 2011; 1-86.

Johnson DE, Wopereis MCS, Mbodj D, Diallo S, Powers S, Haefele SM. Timing of weed management and yield losses due to weeds in irrigated rice in the Sahel. Field Crop. Res. 2004; 85: 31-42.

Dibyendu M, Anannya G, Debashis R, Adyant K, Diana S, Soumen B, Ratikanta G, Pintoo B, Anurup M. Yield loss assessment of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) due to different biotic stresses under a system of rice intensification (SRI). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017; 5(4): 1974-1980.

Mola T, Belachew K. Effect of weeding time on rice (Oryza sativa Linn) yield and yield components at Kaffa, Southwest Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2015; 5: 162-167.

Becker M, Johnson DE. Cropping intensity effects on upland rice yield and sustainability in West Africa. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 2001; 59(2): 107-117.

Oerke EC, Dehne HW. Safeguarding production-losses in major crops and the role of crop protection. Crop Prot. 2004; 23: 275-285.

Johnson D. Weed Management in small holder rice production in the tropics. Natura Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, Kent, UK; 2013.

Mekonnen G, Mitiku W, Eskinder Y. Determination of critical period of weed-crop competition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Bench Maji and Kaffa Zone, South-Western Ethiopia. Journal of plant sciences. 2017; 5: 90-98. DOI: 10.11648/j.jps.20170503.11

Stroud A. Weed management in Ethiopia: An extension and training manual. FAO, Rome; 1989.

Abraham Tadesse. Increasing crop production through improved plant protection – Volume I. Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia (PPSE), 19-22 December 2006. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PPSE and EIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2008; 598.

Mekonen S. Assessment of factors influencing adoption of integrated striga management technologies of sorghum in habro and fedis woredas. Oromia Region, Harameya University. 2007; 1-6.

Ast AV. The influence of time and severity of Striga infection on the sorghum bicolor-Striga hermonthica association. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, with Summaries in English, French, and Dutch. 2006; 154.

Bejiga T. Effect of Striga infestation on sorghum agronomic traits and its breeding strategy for resistance in Ethiopia: A review. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2019; 9: 17-24. DOI: 10.7176/JNSR

AATF (African Agricultural Technology Foundation). Feasibility study on striga control in sorghum. African Agricultural Technology Foundation, Nairobi. 2011; 59.

Obilana AT, Ramaiah KV. Striga (witchweeds) in sorghum and millet: knowledge and future research needs, India. 1992; 187-201.

Spallek T, Musembi M, Ken S. The genus striga: A witch profile. Mol Plant Pathol. 2013; 14(9): 861-869.

Rich PJ, Grenier C, Ejeta G. Striga resistance in the wild relatives of sorghum. AGRIS. 2004; 44: 2221-2229.

Tesso T, Zenbaba G, Aberra D, Ejeta G. An integrated Striga management option offers effective control of Striga in Ethiopia. In: Ejeta, G. and Gressel, J. (eds). Integrating New Technologies for Striga Control: Towards Ending the Witch-hunt. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore. 2007; 199-212.

Assefa B, Hussein A, Tongoona P, Fentahun M, Laing ML, Dawit G. Sorghum production systems and constraints, and coping strategies under drought-prone agro-ecologies of Ethiopia. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 2016; 33(3): 207-217.

Tamado T, Ohlander L, Milberg P. Interference by the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. with grain sorghum: Influence of weed density and duration of competition. Int J Pest Manage. 2002; 48: 183-188.

Vivek NSR, Raghuvir S, Tomar SS. Effect of weed interference on weeds and productivity of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.). Indian J Weed Sci. 2008; 40: 65-67.

Chikoye D, Schulz S, Ekeleme F. Evaluation of integrated weed management practices for maize in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Crop Protection. 2004; 23: 895-900.

Safdar ME, Tanveer A, Abdul K, Rizwan M. Critical competition period of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in maize. Crop protection. 2016; 80: 101-107.

Safdar ME, Tanveer A, Abdul K, Muhammad AR. Yield losses in maize (Zea mays) infested with parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Crop Protection. 2015; 70: 77-82.

Ransom JK, Short K, Waddington S. Improving productivity of maize under stress conditions. Proceeding of the First National Maize Workshop of Ethiopia, IAR/ CIMMYT, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1993; 30-33.

Rajcan I, Swanton CJ. Understanding maize-weed competition: resource competition, light quality, and the whole plant. Field crops research. 2001; 71: 139-150.

Desta K. Weed control methods used in Ethiopia. Animal power for weed control. A resource book of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, the Netherlands. 2000; 250-251.

Imoloame EO, Omolaiye JO. Impact of different periods of weed interference on growth and yield of Maize (Zea mays L.). Trop. Agric. (Trinidad). 2016; 93(4): 245-257.

Assefa T. Weed incidence and control in the major crops at Asossa: An overview.In: Fasil Reda and D.G. Tanner (eds.). Arem. 1999; 5:14–26, 146-161.

IAR. Nazreth Research Center progress report for 1988. Addis Ababa: IAR; 1988.

Mengistu HG, Mengistu H, Matias M. Determination of the critical period of weed control and the effect of mixed weed population on maize (Zea mays) yield and yield components. Arem. 2005; 6: 57-68.

Mulatu B, Grando S. Barley Research and development in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 2nd National Barley Research and Development Review Workshop. HARC, Holetta, Ethiopia. 2011; 1-391.

Perronne R, Sabrina G, Emilie C, Valerie LC. The interspecific and intraspecific variation of functional traits in weeds: diversified ecological strategies within arable fields. Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters. 2014; 161(3): 243–252. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12538078.2013.868320

Sattin M, Berti A. Parameters for weed-crop competition. FAO plant production and protection papers No. 120: Addendum 1: Weed management for developingcountries; 2003. Available:http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5031e/y5031e04.htm, retrieved on June 10, 2020.

Watson PR, Derksen DA, Van ARC. The ability of twenty-nine barley cultivars to compete and withstand competition. Weed Science. 2006; 54: 783-792.

Takele N, Abreham F, Minale L, Beyeneshe Z. Achievements of research on weeds and their management in barley in Ethiopia. Barley Research and Development in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 2nd National barley research and Development Review Workshop, Holetta, Ethiopia. 2011; 1-391.

Berhanu A, Dereje A, Alemtsehay T, Addis A, Kebede M, Girmay S. Enhancement of barley productivity through improved crop management practices in the semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia. RUFORUM Working Document Series. 2016; 14(1): 743-749.

Kebede M, Tigist B, Geleta G, Girma C, Kasa M, Megersa D, Hailu F. Effect of various weed management options on weeds and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at Shambo and Gedo, Western Oromia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2017; 7(21): 74-83.

Pankova O, Fesenko A, Bezpalko V, Gutyanskyi R, Yakovlyeva M. Weeds characteristic, unique traits, harmful effects, classification: guide lines for practical work on the technology of crop production. Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kharkiv Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture. 2016; 1-21.

Gbehounou G. Guidance on weed issues and assessment of noxious weeds in a context of harmonized legislation for production of certified seed. Plant Production and Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome. 2013; 1-39.

Naidu VSGR, Ravisankar H, Sandeep D, Virendra K, Sharma AR. Knowledge-based system for weed seed identification. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 2015; 47(2): 197-200.

Steven AF. Weed seed biology, seedbanks, and management. Weed Science School. 2017; 14: 1-49.

Roger LS. The identification, distribution, impacts, biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository). 1994; 446. Available:https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/govdocs/446

Adkins SW. Some present problems and future approaches to weed management in the Asian-Pacific region: supporting food and environment security by 2020. (in) Proceedings. 24th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bandung, Indonesia. 2013; 19-30.

Rana SS, Rana MC. Principles and practices of weed management. second edition. Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Palampur. 2018; 147.

Khanh TD, Linh LH, Linh TH, Quan NT, Cuong DM, Hien VTT, Ham LH, Xuan TD. Integration of allelopathy to control weeds in rice, herbicides - current research and case studies in use, Andrew J. Price and Jessica A. Kelton, Intech Open; 2013. DOI: 10.5772/56035

Duary B. Weed prevention for quality seed production of crops. SATSA Mukhapatra - Annual Technical Issue; 2014. Available:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313861087

Ram SM. Enhancing crop competitiveness through sustainable weed management practices: Sustainable agriculture. Scientific Publishers (India). 2017; 7-68.

Bizualew Z. Determination of critical period of weed-crop competition in malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in North Showa Zone, central Ethiopia. A Thesis submitted to the college of agriculture and natural resource sciences, department of plant sciences school of graduate studies, Debre Berhan University. 2018; 64.

Rao SS. Abiotic stress factors affecting sorghum production and their management. Presented at “National level training course on Kharif and rabi sorghum varieties and Production technology” 18-25th February 2004, NRCS, Hyderabad, India. 2014; 1-7. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2897.8887