Main Article Content
Background: Microalgae are cell factories driven from sunlight to facilitate change in carbon dioxide to probable algal biofuels, feeds, foods and high-value products of bioactive. Photosynthesis of microalgae has dropping the release of carbon dioxide into the ambiance and producing technologically priceless compounds.
Aim: In the present study, to isolate and identify the Cyanobacteria from different paddy fields and to study the molecular identification and to determine the hydrocarbons of the isolate.
Materials and Methods: The isolates were identified by microscopy. Biochemical categorization viz chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilins of the isolates were deliberated. The isolate was identified based on the molecular (16s rRNA) analysis. The phylogenetic tree was constituted using the Neighbor-joining process and hydrocarbons were identified by GCMS.
Results: Predominant genera of Oscillatoria sp., Phormidium sp., Anabaena sp., Apanocapsa sp. and Chrococcus sp. were secluded from paddy fields of Rasipuram, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, India. The individual colonies were in the range of 5.2 to 9.6µm broad, and pale blue-green cells. The microalgae were identified microscopically as Oscillatoria earlei. Chlorophyll content was recorded in an improved tendency from the first week to the fourth week. Carotenoids were found in the second week to the fourth week. C-Phycocyanin was elevated in the first week. But Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin content showed utmost in first week only. The isolate was identified based on the molecular detection by 16s rRNA study was done using the NCBI BLAST and showed 99% similarities with the reported 16s rRNA sequence of O. earlei. The hydrocarbon content of O. earlei was analyzed by GC-MS. Major hydrocarbons of the isolate were 2,4-Ditert-butyl-phenol, Pthalic acid, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester and n-Heptadecane.
Conclusion: Microalgae are a cost-effective option for biodiesel production, since its availability, economical, easy to cultivate and reduces Carbon dioxide pollution in the environment. Algal biomass is one of the superior sources of energy.
Miao R, Wegelius A, Durall C, Liang F, Khanna N, Lindblad P. Engineering Cyanobacteria for biofuel production. Modern Topics in the Phototrophic Prokaryotes. 2017;351-393.
Imran Khan M, Hyuk Shin J, Deog Kim J. The promising future of microalgae: Current status, challenges and optimization of a sustainable and renewable industry for biofuels, feed and other products. 2018;17:36.
Farrokh P, Sheikhpour M, Kasaeian A, Asadi H, Bavand R. Cyanobacteria as an eco-friendly resource for biofuel production: A critical review. Biotechnology Progress. 2019;35(5): 3-16.
Khan A, SubbaRao T. Molecular evolution of xenobiotic degrading genes and mobile DNA elements in soil bacteria. Microbial Diversity in the Genomic Era. 2019; 657-678.
Thajjuddin N, Subramanian G. Cyanobacterial biodiversity and potential applications in biotechnology. Curr-sci. 2005; 89(1):47–57.
Jeong Dong K, Gyun Lee C. Diversity of heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria(Blue-green algae) from rice paddy fields and their differential susceptibility to ten fungicides used in Korea. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2006;16 (2):240–246.
Kondo M, Yasuda M. Seasonal changes in N2 fixation activity and N enrichment in paddy soils as affected by soil management in the northern area of Japan. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 2003;37:105–111.
Spolaore P, Joannis cassan C, Duran E, Isambert A. Commercial applications of microalgae. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 2006; 101:87–96.
Yang SS, Chang EU, Lee JY, Horng YY, Lan CR. Isolation and application of carbon dioxide fixation microbes in Taiwan. Month. J. Taipower´s Eng. 2000;624:65-82.
Fujita Y, Ohtsuka T. Diatoms from paddy fields in northern Laos. Diatom. 2005;21:71–89.
Luo W, Pflugmacher S, Proschold T, Walz N, Krienitz L. Genotype versus phenotype variability in Chlorella and Miractinium (Chlorophyta, Treboxiophyceae) – Protist., 2006;157:315–333.
Fawley MW, Fawley KP, Hoffman MJ. Diversity of coccoid algae in Minnesota and North Dakota lakes. Journal of Phycology. 2002;38:8.
Komarek J. Planktonic oscillatorialean cyanoprokaryotes (Short review according to combined planotype and molecular aspects). Hydrobiologia. 2003;52:367-382.
Kailash N, Bhardwaj, Tiwari SC. Cyanobacterial diversity of two hyper-thermal springs, Ringigad and soldhar in Tapoban geothermal field, Uttrakhand Himalaya. Current Science. 2010;99(11):1513-1515.
Desikachary TV. Cyanophyta. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. 1959; 686.
Geitler L. Cyanophyceae. In L Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen Flora. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig. 1932;1196.
Rippka R, Deruelles J, Waterbury JB, Herdman M, Stainer RY. Genetic assignment strains the histories and properties of pure culture of Cyanobacteria. Journal of General microbiology. 1979;11:1-61.
Dayananda C, Sarada, R, Usha Rani M, Shamala, TR, Ravishankar GA. Isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon producing green algae Botryococcus braunii from Indian freshwater bodies. Electronic J. Biotechnol. 2007; 10:73-91.
Dayananda C, Kumutha A, Sarada R, Ravishankar GA. Isolation, characterization and outdoor cultivation of green microalgae Botryococcus SP. Scientific Research and Essays. 2010; 5(17):2497-2505.
Gomathi R, Deepa P, Manoharan C, Jeyachandran S, Vijayakumar S. Survey of cyanobacterial diversity from the different freshwater Ponds of thiruvarur, Tamilnadu, India. Indian Hydrobiology. 2011;14(1): 75-83.
Chang EH, Yang SS. Some characteristics of microalgae isolated in Taiwan for biofixation of carbon dioxide. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 2003; 44:43-52.
Lichtenthaler HK. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology. 1987; 148:350-382.
Bennett A, Bogoard L. Complementary chromatic adaptation in all Filamentous blue-green algae. The Journal of Cell Biology. 1973; 58:419-435.
Melody SC. Plant molecular biology. A laboratory manual. Springer-verlag, Newyork; 1997.
Weisburg WG, Barns MS, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ. 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. Journal of Bacteriology. 1991; 173(2):697-703.
Jae Lee W, Sook Bae K. Inferring the molecular phylogeny of chroococcalian strains (Blue-green algae/Cyanophyta) from the Geumgang River, Based on Partial Sequences of 16S rRNA Gene. The Journal of Microbiology. 2002;40(4):335-339.
Bhuvanesh N, Sundaram SP, Balachandar D. Occurance of hydrocarbon-producing green algal isolates in freshwater bodies of Tamilnadu. International Journal of Current Research. 2010; 5:80-83.
Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S. MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007;24: 1596-1599.
Dey HS, Tayung K, Bastia AK. Occurrence of nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria in local rice fields of Orissa, India. Ecoprint. 2010;17:77-85.
Ghadai AK, Sahoo S and Raut S. Agroecological survey of cyanobacterial population in paddy field soils of Gunupur. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2010;2(2):28-32.
Saadatnia H, Riahi H. Cyanobacteria from paddy fields in Iran as biofertilizer in rice plants. Plant Soil Environ. 2009; 55(5):207-212.
Waugh GR, Clark KB, Seasonal and geographic variation; in chlorophyll level of Elysia tuca (Ascoglossa: Opisthobranchia). Marine Biol. 1986; 92:483-487.
Vitova M, Bisova K, Hlavova M, Kawano S, Zchleder V, Cizkova M. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: duration of its cell cycle and phases at growth rates affected by temperature. Planta. 2011; 234:599-608.
Johnson JL, Fawley MW, Fawley KP. The diversity of Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus (Chlorophyceae) in Itasca state park, Minnesota, USA. Phycologia. 2007; 46:214-229.
Li Wh. Molecular Evalution. Sinauea Associates. Sundarland. MA, USA; 1997.
Thompson, GA. Lipids and membrane function in green algae Biochemica, Biophysica, Acta. 1996; 1302:17-45.