SHELL MORPHOMETRY AND FECUNDITY OF THE EXOTIC SNAIL Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) IN KOLKATA, INDIA

Main Article Content



An assessment of the shell morphology and the fecundity of the ‘great ramshorn snail’, Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) obtained from pet market in Kolkata, India was carried out. Using various dimensions of the shell, including shell diameter, and body weight of the living specimens (n=204) and shell weight for dead specimens (n= 306), the correlations and regression equations were framed to portray the shell shape of P. corneus. A relationship between fecundity with the shell diameter was also deduced to highlight the reproductive potential of P. corneus. In the living specimens, the shell diameter (x) and the body weight (y) fitted with a power regression y = 0.396x2.74, R² = 0.987. Similar observation was made for the dead specimens, where the shell diameter (x) and the shell weight (y) were related as: y = 0.067x2.99, R² = 0.973. All the dimensions of the shell were highly correlated (P < 0.0001) and could be related through regression equations. A positive correlation was observed between fecundity and shell diameter but with a low fit to a linear regression equation, indicating sufficient variability in the fecundity for a particular size of P. corneus. In continuation with these observations, further studies on P. corneus are required to deduce its possible effects as an invasive freshwater species in Indian context.

Shell morphometry, regression equation, ramshorn snail, invasive species.

Article Details

How to Cite
PARVEEN, S., KARMAKAR, R., PAUL, P., BANERJEE, S., BARMAN, H., & ADITYA, G. (2020). SHELL MORPHOMETRY AND FECUNDITY OF THE EXOTIC SNAIL Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) IN KOLKATA, INDIA. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 40(4), 236–244. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Wilcove DS, Rothstein D, Dubow J, Phillips A and Losos E. Quantifying threats to imperilled species in the United States. BioScience. 1998;48(8):607–615.

Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA. Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications. 2000;10(3):689–710.

Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Gemmell NJ, Rand JA, Ewers RM. Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 2007;22(9):489–496.

Hadfield MG, Mountain BS. A field study of a vanishing species, Achatinella mustelina (Gastropoda, Pulmonata), in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Pacific Science. 1980;34(4):345–358.

Hadfield MG, Miller SE, Carwile AH. The decimation of endemic Hawaiian tree snails by alien predators. American Zoologist. 1993;33(6):610–622.

Aditya G, Raut S. Destruction of Indoplanorbis exustus (Planorbidae) eggs by Pomacea bridgesi (Ampullariidae). Molluscan Research. 2002;22:87–90.

Duggan IC. The freshwater aquarium trade as a vector for incidental invertebrate fauna. Biological Invasions. 2010;12:3757-3770.

Ng TH, Tan SK, Wong WH, Meier R, Chan SY, Tan HH. Molluscs for sale: Assessment of freshwater gastropods and bivalves in the ornamental pet trade. Plos One. 2016;11(8):e0161130.

Rixon CAM, Duggan IC, Bergeron NMN, Ricciardi A, Mac- Isaac HJ. Invasion risks posed by the aquarium trade and live fish markets to the Laurentian Great Lakes. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2005;14:1365–1381.

Chang AL, Grossman JD, Spezio TS, Weiskel HW, Blum JC, Burt JW, Muir AA, Piovia-Scott J, Veblen KE, Grosholz ED. Tackling aquatic invasions: risks and opportunities for the aquarium fish industry. Biological Invasions. 2009;11:773–785.

Pointier JP. Invading freshwater gastropods: some conflicting aspects for public health. Malacologia. 1999;41:403–411.

Cowie RH, Robinson DG. Pathways of introduction of nonindigenous land and freshwater snails and slugs. In: Ruiz GM, Carlton JT (eds) Invasive species: vectors and management strategies. Island Press. 2003;93–122.

Cowie RH. Apple snails as agricultural pests: Their biology, impacts, and management. In: Baker GM (ed) Molluscs as crop pests. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. 2002;145–192.

Kwong KL, Wong PK, Lau SSS, Qiu JW. Determination of the distribution of apple snails in Hong Kong two decades after their initial invasion. Malacologia. 2008;50:293–302.

Costil K, Bailey SER. Influence of water temperature on the activity of Planorbarius corneus (L.) (Pulmonata, Planorbidae). Malacologia. 1998;39(1-2):141-150.

Wesselingh FP, Cadeé GC, Renema W. Flying high: On the airborne dispersal of aquatic organisms as illustrated by the distribution histories of the gastropod genera Tryonia and Planorbarius. Geologie en Mijnbouw. 1999;78:165–174.

Jopp F. Comparative studies on the dispersal of the great ramshorn (Planorbarius corneus L.): A modeling approach. Limnologica. 2006;36:17-25.

Seddon MB, Van Damme D. Planorbarius corneus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011;e.T156083A4889234.

Costil K, Daguzan J. Comparative lifecycle and growth of two freshwater gastropod species, corneus (L.) and Planorbis planorbis (L.). Malacologia. 1995a;37(1):53–68.

Costil K, Daguzan J. Effect of temperature on reproduction in Planorbarius corneus (L.) and Planorbis planorbis (L.) throughout the life span. Malacologia. 1995b;36(1-2):79–89.

Costil K. Effect of temperature on embryonic development of twp freshwater pulmonates, Planorbarius corneus (L.) and Planorbis planorbis (L.). Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1997;63:293-296.

Zotin AA. Individual growth of Planorbarius corneus (Planorbidae, Gastropoda) in postlarval entogenesis. Russian Journal of Developmental Biology. 2018;49(6):381–387.

Keller R, Drake J, Lodge D. Fecundity as a basis for risk assessment of nonindigenous freshwater molluscs. Conservation Biology. 2007;21(1):191–200.

Chiu YW, Chen HC, Lee SC, Chen CA. Morphometric analysis of shell and operculum variations in the Viviparid snail, Cipangopaludina chinensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda), in Taiwan. Zoological Studies. 2002;41(3):321–331.

Vinarski MV. A comparative study of shell variation in two morphotypes of Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Zoological Studies. 2014;53:69.

Parra C, Liria J. Shell geometric morphometrics in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae) uninfected and infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Zoological Systematics. 2015;42(1):59–64.

Zar JH. Biostatistical Analysis. IV ed. Pearson Education Pte Ltd., Indian Branch, New Delhi. 1999;663.

Berrie AD. Life-cycle of Planorbarius corneus (L.). Nature. 1963;198:805–806.

Strzelec M. Planorbis planorbis (linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in man-made water bodies of the upper Silesian industrial region. Folia Malacologica. 1989;3: 159–173.

Vinarski MV, Karimov AV. Geographic variation of Planorbis planorbis shells in the waterbodies of Western Siberia (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Planorbidae). Mollusca. 2008;26(2):195–206.

Medeiros C, Caldeira RL, Mendonça CLF, dos Santos Carvalho O, D’ávila S. Ontogeny and morphological variability of shell in populations of Leptinaria unilamellata (d’Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Subulinidae). Springer Plus. 2015;4:191.

Lewin I, Smoliński A. Rare and vulnerable species in the mollusc communities in the mining subsidence reservoirs of an industrial area (The Katowicka Upland, Upper Silesia, Southern Poland). Limnologica. 2006;36:181–191.

James M. Changes in the faunal composition of two thermal streams near Taupo, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 1985;19(4):439–443.

Poznańska M, Goleniewska D, Gulanicz T, Kakaroks T, Jermacz L, Kobak J. Effect of substratum drying on the survival and migrations of a freshwater pulmonate snail Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus, 1758). Hydrobiologia. 2015;747:177–188.