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Gaya district, located in the state of Bihar, India, is a hub for Hindu and Buddhist pilgrims. Every year millions of pilgrims visit this city. However, lack of proper sanitation facility in the city creates an unhygienic environment leading to several gastrointestinal diseases. One such disease prevalent in this region is Amoebiasis causes by Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebiasis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the city. However, mode of transmission and intensity of this disease in this region has not been studied in detail till date. In this study, we aimed to understand the extent of the spread of amoebiasis in Gaya district and characterized its pathogenicity. We have used methods such as microscopy, staining, sedimentation, culture, and animal models for the identification and characterization of trophozoites and cysts. Our results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica infection in both symptomatic and asymptomatic population but the virulence and pathogenicity of strains from symptomatic patients were found to be more severe. Infections could be detected by established protocols of microscopy without any added detection advantage from culture methods. Albino rats and guinea pigs both showed similar virulence and pathogenicity of the strains.
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