Main Article Content



The observation showed the existence of 17 species of zooplankton comprising of 12 species of rotifer, 3 species of cladocera and 2 species of copepod in a perennial pond of Tripura. During the two years study periods, highest density of rotifer (321 ind/l) recorded in the winter season and lowest density (79 ind/l) in summer while highest density of cladocera (153 ind/l) recorded in the summer and lowest density (43ind/l) in monsoon season and similar trend of seasonal succession in terms of density were also showed in the copepod fauna (117 ind/l in summer; 31 ind/l in monsoon) as that of cladoceran fauna. The percentage composition of different families under which different zooplankton species exist was recorded as well as percentage composition of each zooplankton species was also recorded. Physico-chemical factors of the studied perennial pond were also recorded. The simple correlation coefficient showed water temperature (r = - 0.9531, P<0.01) has negative and significant correlation with the zooplankton density. However, the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that water temperature (P<0.01), dissolved oxygen (P<0.05), bicarbonate alkalinity (P<0.01), dissolved organic matter (P<0.01), phosphate phosphorus (P<0.05) have significant impact on the density of zooplankton in the studied pond. The study infers that although the different groups of zooplankton co-exist in the same water body, their density varies with different seasons of the year and presumably aquatic macrophyte substrata and suitable range of the abiotic factors (physico-chemical) conjointly act for the densities of zooplankton of the studied perennial pond.

Zooplankton, density, percentage composition, seasonal variations, physico-chemical factors, pond ecosystem, Tripura

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Research Article


Ibrahim AHM, Ahmed ZF, Ohtomi J, El-Kady, MA, Fulanda B. Comparison studies on water quality and plankton production between perennial and non–perennial ponds in Bangladesh. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 2008;3:176–183.

Karpowicz M, Ejsmont-Karabin J, Wi˛Ecko A, Górniak A, Cudowski A. A place in space-the horizontal vs vertical factors that influence zooplankton (Rotifera, Crustacea) communities in a mesotrophic lake. J. Limnol. 2019;78:243–258.

Vaidya Sunil Ram. Role of zooplankton in aquaculture. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development. 2017;2(5):951-954.

Saler S. Diversity and abundance of zooplankton in Medik Reservoir of Turkey. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;11(2):126-132.

Apaydın Yağcı M, Yağcı A, Dölcü B. Relationships between the physicochemical parameters and zooplankton in Eğirdir Lake (Turkey). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences. 2016;15(1):118-132.

Sharma AS, Gupta S, Singh NR. Zooplankton community of Keibul Lamjao National Park (KLNP) Manipur, India in relation to the physico-chemical variables of the water. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 2017;35(3):469-480.

Dhanasekaran M, Saravana Bhavan P, Manickam N, Kalpana R. Physico-chemical characteristics and zooplankton diversity in a perennial lake at Dharmapuri (Tamilnadu, India). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017;5(1):285-292.

Karpowicz M, Ejsmont-Karabin J, Kozłowska J, Feniova I, Dzialowski AR. Zooplankton Community Responses to Oxygen Stress. Water. 2020;12:706.

Silvia Lomartire, Joao C Marques, Ana MM Gonçalves. The key role of zooplankton in ecosystem services: A perspective of interaction between zooplankton and fish recruitment. Ecological Indicators. 2021;129: 107867.

Karpowicz M, Ejsmont-Karabin J. Effect of metalimnetic gradient on phytoplankton and zooplankton (Rotifera, Crustacea) communities in different trophic conditions. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2017;189:367.

Kippen NK. Impact of macrophyte substratum and season on the habitat choice of rotifer communities. Hydrobiologia. 2005;593:27-37.

Pillay TVR. Aquaculture principles and practices. Fishing News Books. Oxford. 1993;575.

Padate GS, Mahajan MG. Species richness and density of Rotifers from Malpur reservoir in rain deficient Area of North Maharashtra, India and their seasonal changes as well as correlation with Physico-Chemical Parameters. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews. 2019;6(1):890-898.

Gyanendra Gautam, Asha Paudel, Laxmi Poudel, Mani Shrestha. Limno-plankton diversity and water quality in shallow Lake Ecosystem in central Nepal. Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 2016;3(7):131-139.

Umi WAD, Yusoff FM, Aris AZ, Sharip Z. Rotifer community structure in tropical lakes with different environmental characteristics related to ecosystem health. J Environ Biol. 2018;39:795–807.

Duggan IC, Green JD, Shiel RJ. Distribution of rotifers in North Island, New Zealand, and their potential use as bioindicators of lake trophic state. Hydrobiologia. 2001;446/447:155–164.

Lubzens E, Tandler A, Minkoff G. Rotifer as food in aquaculture. Hydrobiologia. 1989;186/187:387-400.

Ahmad U, Parveen S, Mola HR, Kabir HA, Ganai AH. Zooplankton population in relation to physicochemical parameters of Lal Diggi pond in Aligarh, India. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2012;33:1015-1019.

Patalas K. Crustacean plankton and the Eutrophication of St. Lawrence Great Lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 1972;29:1415-1462.

Dejen E, Vijverberg J, Nagelkerke, LAJ, Sibbing, FA. Temporal and spatial distribution of microcrustacean zooplankton in relation to turbidity and other environmental factors in a large tropical lake L.Tana, Ethiopia. Hydrobiologia. 2004;513:39-49.

Pinto-Coelho R, Penel-Allou IB, Methot G, Havens KE. Crustacean zooplankton in lakes and reservoirs of temperate and tropical regions: variations with trophic status, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2005;62(2):348–361.

Bhuiyan AS, Islam MT, Sharmeen R. Occurrence and abundance of some copepods in a Fish Pond in Rajshahi, Bangladesh in relation to the physico–chemical conditions. Journal of Bio-Science. 2008;16:115–119.

Chakrabarti Saumen. Seasonal abundance of crustacean community in a pond ecosystem of Tripura in relation to physico-chemical factors. Uttar Pradesh J. Zool. 2013;33(3):311-316.

Ghanai AH, Parveen S, Khan AA. Study of some physico-chemical parameters in Medical Pond, Aligarh. The Ekologia. 2010;10:88-96.

Scheffer M, Geest GJV, Zimmer K, Jeppesen E, Sondergaard M. Small habitat size and isolation can promote species richness: Second-order effects on biodiversity in shallow lakes and ponds. Oikos. 2006;112: 227-231.

Kuczyńska-Kippen NM, Nagengast B. The influence of the spatial structure of hydromacrophytes and differentiating habitat on the structure of rotifer and cladoceran communities. Hydrobiologia. 2006;559:203-212.

Meerhoff M, Iglesias C, De Mello FT, Clemente JM, Jensen E, Lauridsen TL, Jeppesen E. Effects of habitat complexity on community structure and predator avoidance behaviour of littoral zooplankton in temperate versus subtropical shallow lakes. Freshwater Biol. 2007;52:1009-1021.

Padial AA, Thomaz SM, Agostinho, AA. Effects of structural heterogeneity provided by the floating macrophyte Eichhornia azurea on the predation efficiency and habitat use of the small Neotropical fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. Hydrobiologia. 2009;624:161-170.

Pennak RW. Rotifera. In: Freshwater Invertebrates of United States.1st Edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York; 1978.

Edmondson, WT. Rotifera. In: Freshwater Biology (Edmondson, W.T. Ed.) John Wiley and Sons, New York; 1992.

Cook CDK. Aquatic and Wetland Plants in India. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1996;385.

APHA, AWWA, WEF. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 23rd Edition. American Public Health Association, Washington DC; 2017.

Hofmann W. The influence of abiotic factors on the population dynamics in planktonic rotifers. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limol. 1977;8:77-83.

Stewart LJ, George DG. Environmental factors influencing the vertical migration of planktonic rotifers in a hypereutrophic tarn. Hydrobiologia. 1987;147:203-208.

Paulose, PV, Maheshwari K. Seasonal variation on zooplankton community structure of Ramgarh lake, Jaipur, Rajasthan. 12th World Lake Conference. 2008;82-87.

Bhat NA, Wanganes A, Raina R. Spatio-temporal variation of the zooplankton community in a tropical wetland (Bhoj wetland), Bhopal, India. J. Ecol. Nat. Environ. 2014;8(8):252-270.

Mili, K, Rout SK, Jana D, Annupama, RR, Chakraborty, S. Study of zooplankton population in three ponds of Eastern Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 2017;20(1):255-259.

Somani V, Pejawar M. Crustacean zooplankton population of the lake Maunda, Thane, Maharashtra. J. Aqua. Biol. 2004;19(1):56-57.

Manoharan D, Isaiarasu L, Suresh Kumar R, Mariaappan V. Observations on the occurrence and diversity of zooplankton in the surface water of three tropical ponds at Thiruparankundram near Madurai, Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies. 2015;2(4):114-119.

Chakrabarti Saumen. Copepod density, percentage composition and their seasonal variations in a macrophyte infested pond of Tripura, India in relation to physic-chemical factors. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2019;10,12(F):36617-36621.

Meshram Wasudha J. Seasonal diversity of copepods in relation with physico-chemical status of Devtaki pond, Distt. Gondia, Gondia (M.S.), India. Int. J. of Life Sciences. 2014;A2:147-149.

Kedar, GT, GP Patil, SM Yeole. Effect of physicochemical factors on the seasonal abundance of zooplankton population in Rishi Lake. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference. 2008;88-91.

Natalia KK. The impact of differentiated habitat on crustacean community structure in macrophytes dominated lakes in the Wielkopolska region, Poland. Oceanol Hydrobiol. Stud. 2006;35:179-191.

Gyanendra Gautam, Asha Paudel, Laxmi Poudel, Mani Shrestha. Limno-plankton diversity and water quality in shallow Lake Ecosystem in central Nepal. Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 2016;3(7):131-139.

Nie X, Hu XR, Liu GH, Jin BS, Qin HM. Species diversity of zooplankton and water quality biological assessment in a sub-lake of Poyang Lake. Journal of Nanchang University (Natural Science). 2018;42(2):161-167.

Anyanwu JC, Onyedilefu UG, Nwobu EA. Study of physicochemical properties and zooplankton diversity of Oguta lake in Oguta local government area of Imo State. International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 2020;4(10):328-336.

Khan SN, Khan S. Variations in the Physico-chemical Factors and Zooplankton Diversity during Monsoon and Post-monsoon Period of a Bavori in JDB College Campus Kota, Rajasthan, India. Int J Sci Stud. 2017;5(9):22-28.

Azma Hanim Ismail, Anis Amalina Mohd Adnan. Zooplankton composition and abundance as indicators of eutrophication in two small manmade lakes. Tropical Life Sciences Research. 2016;27(Supp. 1):31–38.

I Skın U, Filiz N, Cao Y, Neif ÉM, Ö˘ Glü B, Lauridsen TL, Davidson TA, Søndergaard M, et al. Impact of Nutrients, Temperatures, and a Heat Wave on Zooplankton Community Structure: An Experimental Approach. Water. 2020;12: 3416.