HEAVY METALS, INSECTICIDE AND HERBICIDE INDUCED BEHAVIOURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE EARTHWORM Eisenia fetida

Main Article Content

SHUBHAM MORE
RAHUL PADWAL
MINAKSHI GURAV

Abstract

Pesticides and heavy metals are introduced in soil by various anthropogenic activities. Farmers use pesticides for agriculture purposes. Electronic waste has a high content of heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals and pesticides have an adverse effect on soil fauna. Earthworm, which is one of the important animals that play a vital role in increasing soil fertility and important component of a food chain, is adversely affected. In this paper, we studied the effect of heavy metals, a pesticide and a herbicide on earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Behavioural and morphological changes were studied. Earthworms were treated with acute doses of heavy metals, a pesticide and a herbicide to see their mortality and change in behaviour. Heavy metals induced behavioural changes very early than the pesticide and the insecticide. There was mortality reported in case of heavy metals but no mortality was induced by the selected insecticide and pesticide.

Keywords:
Eisenia fetida, earthworms, heavy metals, dusra oxyguard, dupont corgen

Article Details

How to Cite
MORE, S., PADWAL, R., & GURAV, M. (2021). HEAVY METALS, INSECTICIDE AND HERBICIDE INDUCED BEHAVIOURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE EARTHWORM Eisenia fetida. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 42(23), 62-67. Retrieved from http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2608
Section
Short Research Article

References

Sivakumar S. Effects of metals on earthworm life cycles: a review. Environ Monit Assess. 2015 Aug;187(8):530.

Kumar S, Sharma V, Bhoyar RV, Bhattacharyya JK, Chakrabarti T. Effect of heavy metals on earthworm activities during vermicomposting of municipal solid waste. Water Environ Res. 2008 Feb;80(2): 154–61.

Lev SM, Matthies N, Snodgrass JW, Casey RE, Ownby DR. Effects of zinc exposure on earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, in an artificial soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84(6):687–91.

Lahr J, Kools SAE, van der Hout A, Faber JH. Combined effects of zinc and earthworm density on soil ecosystem functioning. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2008 Feb 1;40(2):334–41.

Cheng J, Wong MH. Effects of earthworms on Zn fractionation in soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 2002 Aug 1;36(1):72–8.

Psarska S, Nater EA, Kolka RK. Impacts of Invasive Earthworms on Soil Mercury Cycling: Two Mass Balance Approaches to an Earthworm Invasion in a Northern Minnesota Forest. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2016 Jun;227(6):205.

Hinton J, Veiga M. Earthworms as bioindicators of mercury pollution from mining and other industrial activities. Geochemistry-exploration Environment Analysis - GEOCHEM- EXPLOR ENVIRON ANAL. 2002 Aug 1;2:269–74.

Bourdineaud J-P, Štambuk A, Šrut M, Radić Brkanac S, Ivanković D, Lisjak D, et al. Gold and silver nanoparticles effects to the earthworm Eisenia fetida – the importance of tissue over soil concentrations. null. 2021 Jan 2;44(1):12–29.

Shoults-Wilson WA, Reinsch BC, Tsyusko OV, Bertsch PM, Lowry GV, Unrine JM. Effect of silver nanoparticle surface coating on bioaccumulation and reproductive toxicity in earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Nanotoxicology. 2011 Sep;5(3):432–44.

Ripper WE. Effect of Pesticides on Balance of Arthropod Populations. Annu Rev Entomol. 1956 Jan 1;1(1):403–38.

Brunner JF, Dunley JE, Doerr MD, Beers EH. Effect of pesticides on Colpoclypeus florus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Trichogramma platneri (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of leafrollers in Washington. J Econ Entomol. 2001 Oct;94(5):1075–84.

Paoletti MG. The role of earthworms for assessment of sustainability and as bioindicators. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74. 1999.

Kumar S, Singh SM. Histopathological changes in two earthworm species after o, o-diethyl s-(ethylthio) methyl phasphoroditl toxicity. International Journal of Science Environment and Technology, 6 (5), 2898-2906.

Lionetto MG, Calisi A, Schettino T. Earthworm Biomarkers as Tools for Soil Pollution Assessment [Internet]. Soil Health and Land Use Management. IntechOpen; 2012 [cited 2021 Nov 8]. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/25283

Gupta S, Yadav S. Immuno-defense Strategy in Earthworms: A Review Article. IntJCurrMicrobiolAppSci. 2016 Apr 15;5(4):1022–35.

Arman S, Akat E. Toxic Effect of Fenamiphos on the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta). HJBC. 2016 Apr 1;2(44):133–133.

Venkateswara Rao J, Kavitha P, Padmanabha Rao A. Comparative toxicity of tetra ethyl lead and lead oxide to earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Environ Res. 2003;92(3): 271–6.

Venkateswara Rao J, Surya Pavan Y, Madhavendra SS. Toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on morphology and acetylcholinesterase activity in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2003 Mar;54(3):296–301.

Capowiez Y, Dittbrenner N, Rault M, Triebskorn R, Hedde M, Mazzia C. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing. Environ Pollut. 2010 Feb;158(2):388–93.