Main Article Content



Nature has endowed us by a number of things. It is also equally true carelessness by human being caused a great loss to the earth. Pollution is one of such carelessness. But it is the beauty of nature that has given the treatment of every such carelessness. The technique “bioremediation" is nothing just a remedy by the nature that recycles wastes and makes them harmless and to some extent beneficial. It is found to be one of the most effective methods for restoring polluted river water and preserving the affected ecosystem. With the help of all-inclusive microorganisms, bioremediation involves the degradation, elimination, restriction and reclamation of numerous chemical and physical hazardous elements from the environment. It also involves disintegration as well as the transmutation of contaminants like as heavy metals which is the core premise of bioremediation. Different microorganisms such as algae are found to be game changer in the bioremediation process. Bioaugmentation, Bio stimulation, Biofilters, Bioreactors, Biopharming, Bioventing, Composting, Land farming are various Bioremediation techniques. All bioremediation processes have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Above all, using bioremediation to resurrect a dirty river will result in significantly less contaminated, safe, and ship-shape waterways.

Bioremediation, biodegradation, polluted river, water treatment, contamination, bio stimulation, bio augmentation

Article Details

How to Cite
Review Article


Kumari SB, Kirubavathy AK, Thirumalnesan R. Stability and water quality criteria of open drainage municipal sewage water at Coimbatore used for irrigation. Environ. Biol. 2006;27(4):709-712.

Morrison GO, Fatoki OS, Ekberg A. Assessment of the impact of point source Pollution from the Keiskammahoek sewage treatment plant on the Keiskamma River. Water. SA. 2001;27:475-480.

DAWF and WRC. South Africa Water Quality Guideline 1: Domestic water use (2nd edn) Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria; 1995.

DWAF. South Africa water quality Guidlines. 7: Aquatic Ecosystems (1st Edn) Department of water Affairs and forestry, Pretoria; 1996c.

Dias MA. Removal of heavy metals by an Aspergillus terreusstrain immobilized in polyurethane matrix. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2002;34(1):46-50.

Oluduro AO, Adewoye BI. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seed extract on the microflora of surface and ground water J. plant Sci. 2007;6:453-438.

Asaolu SS, Ipinmoroti KO, Adeyinowo CE, Olaofe O. Interrelationship 0f heavy metals concentration in water, sediment as fish samples from Ondo State coastal Area, Nig. Afr. J. Sci. 1997;1:55-61.

Barik RM, Patel RK. Seasonal variation of water quality of Attharabanki River near Paradeep. J. Environ. Protect. 2004;24(3):161-166.

Sunderamoorthy P, Kunchithapata J, Thamizhiniyan P, Benkateslu S. Effect of fertilizer factory effluent on germination and seedling growth of groundnut varities. J. Ecobiol. 2001;13 (1):3-8.

Singh PP, Mall M, Singh J. Impact of fertilizer factory effluent on seed germination, Seedling growth and chlorophyll content of Cicer arietinum. J. Environ. Biol. 2006;27(1):153- 156.

Cooper. Colour in dyehouse effluent: society of dyers and colourists, The Alden Press, Oxford; 1995.

Om H, Singh N, Arya NS. Combined effect of wastes of distillery and sugar mill on the seed germination, seedling growth and Biomass of Abelmoschus esculentus. J. Environ. Biol. 1994;15(3):171-175.

Ryther JH, Tenore KR, Dunstan WM, Huguenin JE. Controlled eutrophication-increasing food production from sea by recycling human wastes. Bioscience. 1972;22:144.

Romero-Gonzalez ME, Williams CJ, Gardiner PHE. Study of the mechanisms of cadmium biosorption by dealginated seaweed waste. Environmental Science &Technology. 2001;35:3025–3030.

Ash N, Jerkins M. Biodiversity and overty reduction: the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem services. Final report prepared by the unites Nations; 2006.

Abd Allah LS. Metal-binding ability of cyanobacteria: the responsible genes and optinak applications in bioremediation of polluted water for agriculture use. Ph.D. Thesis, department of Enivironmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 2006.

Haande S, Pohrlack T, Semyalo RP. Phytoplankton dynamics and cyanobacterial dominance in Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (Uganda) in relation to environmental conditions. Limnologica; 2010.

Boomiathan M. Bioremediation studies on dairy effluents using cyanobacteria. Ph.D. Thesis. Bharathidasan University. Tiruchirapalli. Tamil Nadu, India; 2005.

Semyalo RP. The effects of cyanobacteria on the growth, survival and behavior of a tropical fish (Nile Tilapia) and zooplankton (Daphnia lumholtzi). Ph. D. Thesis, University of Bergen, Norway; 2009.

Raghukumar C, Vipparty V, David JJ, Chandramohan D. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2001;57:433-436.

Radwan SS, Al-Hasan RH. Potential application of coastal biofilm-coated gravel particles for treating oily waste. AME. 2001;23:113-117.

Cohen Y. Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats. Int. Microbiol. 2002;5:189-193.

Lee K, Lee CG. Effect of light/dark cycles on wastewater treatment by microalgae. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 2001;6:194-199.

Lima SA, de J. Raposo MF, Castro PML, Morais RM. Biodegradation of p-chlorophenol by a microalgae consortium. Water Res. 2004;38:97-102.

Mulbry WW, Wilkie AC. Growth of benthic freshwater algae on dairy manures. J. Appl. Phycol., 2001;13:301-306.

Voltolina D, Gómez-Villa H, Correa G. Nitrogen removal and recycling by Scenedesmus obliquus in semi continuous cultures using artificial wastewater and simulated light and temperature cycle. Bioresour. Technol. 2005;96:359-362.

Ogbonna JC, Yoshizawa H, Tanaka H. Treatment of high strength organic wastewater by a mixed culture of photosynthetic microorganisms. J. Appl. Phycol. 2000;12:277-284.

Tarlan E, Dilek FB, Yetis U. Effectiveness of algae in treatment of a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2002;84:1-5.

Aksu Z, Kustal TA. Bioseparation process for removing lead ions from wastewater by using Chlorella vulgaris. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 1991;52:109-118.

Chen B, Huang Q, Lin X, Shi Q, Wu S. Accumulation of Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb in Pavlova viridis Tseng (Haptophyceae). J. Appl. Phycol. 1998;10:371-376.

Travieso L, Cañizares RO, Borja R, Benítez F, Domínguez AR, Dupeyrón R, Valiente V. Heavy metal removal by microalgae. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1999;62:144- 151.

Yu Q, Matheickal JT, Pinghe Yin, Kaewsar P. Heavy metals uptake capacities of common microalgal biomass. Water Res. 1999;33:1534-1537.

Mohamed Sayed Abdel Hameed, Ola Hammouda Ebrahim. Biotechnological Potential uses of Immobilized Algae. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology. 2007;183-192.

Shishir TA, Mahbub N, Kamal NE. Review on bioremediation: A tool to resurrect the polluted rivers. Pollution. 2019;5(3):555-568.

Enrique T. Biosorption: A review of the latest advances. Processes. 2020;8:1584.

Kratochvil David, Bohumil Volesky. Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals. Trends in Biotechnology. 1998;6(7):291–300.

Kaewsarn Pairat. Biosorption of Copper (II) from aqueous solutions by pre-treated biomass of marine algae Padina sp. Chemosphere. 2002;47:1081-1085.

Luz Estela Gonzalez, Rosa Olivia Canizares, Sandra Baena. Efficiency of ammonia and phosphorous removal from a Colombian agro industrial wastewater by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus dimorphus. Bioresource Technology. 1997;60:259-262.

Al-Qunaibit MH. Divalent Cu, Cd, and Pb Biosorption in Mixed Solvents. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications; 2009.

Jianlong Wang, Chen. Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnology Advances. 2008;27(2):195–226.

Peña- Castro JM, Martínez-Jerónimo F, Esparza-García F, Cañizares-Villanueva RO. Heavy metals removal by the Microalga scenedesmus in crassatulus in continuous cultures. Bioresource Technology. 2004; 94(2):219-222.

Karin Larsdotter. Wastewater treatment with microalgae-a literature review. VATTEN. 2006;62:31-38.

Mane PC, Bhosle AB. Bioremoval of some metals by living algae Spirogyra sp. and Spirullina sp. from aqueous solution. Int. J. Environ. Res. 2012;6(2):571-576.

Doshi Hiren, Ray Arabinda, Kothari IL. Bioremediation potential of live and dead spirulina: Spectroscopic, kinetics and SEM studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2007;96:1051–1063.

Huijuan Meng, Yunfeng Xia, Hong Chen. Bioremediation of surface water co-contaminated with zinc (II) and linear Alkylbenzene sulfonates by Spirulina platensis. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C.

Bindiya, Madhu GM, Satyanarayana SV, Siva Kiran RR. Bioaccumulation of Cadmium in Blue Green Algae Spirulina (Arthrospira) Indica. J. Bioremed Biodegrad. 2012;3:141.

Liping Deng, Xiaobin Zhu, Xinting Wang, Yingying Su, Hua Su. Biosorption of copper(II) from aqueous solutions by green alga Cladophora fascicularis. Biodegradation. 2007;18:393-402.

Gupta VK, Rastogi A. Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species: Kinetics and equilibrium studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2008;152(1):407–414

Khalaf Mahmoud A. Biosorption of reactive dye from textile wastewater by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp. Bioresource Technology; 2008.

Cristina M. Monteiro, Paula ML. Castro, Xavier Malcata F. solutions. WORLD. 2009;1573-1578.

Cristina M. Monteiro, Paula ML. Castro, Xavier Malcata F. Biosorption of zinc ions from aqueous solution by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. LETTERS. 2011;169-176.

Anubha Kaushik, Bala Kiran, Nisha Rani. Chromium (VI) tolerance in two halotolerant strains of Nostoc. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2008;29(2):155-158.

Abraham Jayathi, Sonil Nanda. Evaluation of Textile Effluents before and After Treatment with Cyanobacteria. J of Industrial Pollution Control. 2010;26(2):149-152.

Monica Patron-Prado, Baudilio Acosta-Vargas, Elisa Serviere- Zaragoza, Lia C. Mendez- Rudriguez. Copper and cadmium biosorption by dried seaweed Sargassum sinicolain saline wastewater. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2010;210:197-202.

Raposo M. Filomena de J., Susana E. Oliveira, Paula M. Castro, Narcisa M. Bandarra, Rui M. Morais. On the utilization of microalgae for brewery effluent treatment and possible applications of the produced biomass. J. Inst. Brew. 2010;116(3):285–292.

Alexandru Cecal, doina humelnicu, valeriu rudic, liliana cepoi and angela cojocari algae. CENTRAL. 2012;1669-1675.

Kannan V, Vijaysanthi M, Rajmohan N. Bioremediation of tannery effluents by filamentous cyanobacteria Anabenaflos- aquae West. Hydrology; 2011.

Sanjay Kumar Dubay, jaishree Dubey, Sandeep Mehra, Pradeep Tiwari, Bishwas AJ. Potential use of cyanobacterial species in bioremediation of industrial effluents. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10(7):1125-1132.

Yi-Chao Lee, Shui-Ping Chang, May. The biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solution by Spirogyra and Cladophora filamentous macroalgae. Bioresource Technology. 2011;102(9):5297–5304.

Jyothi Miranda G. Krishnakumar, Richard Gonsalves. Cr6+ bioremediation efficiency of Oscillatorialaete-virens (Crouan & Crouan) Gomont and Oscillatoria trichoides Szafer: kinetics and equilibrium study. Journal of Applied Phycology; 2012.

Brahmbhatt, Rinku NH, Patel V, Jasrai RT. Removal of cadmium, chromium and lead from filamentous alga of Pithophora sp. of industrial wastewater. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2012; 3(1).

Imani Saber, Rezaei-Zarchi Saeed, Hashemi Mehrdad, Borna Hojjat, Javid Amaneh, Ali Mohamad Z, Hossein Bari Abarghouei. Hg, Cd and Pb heavy metal bioremediation by Dunaliella alga. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011;5(13):2775-2780, 4 July, 2011.

Yan Gaoand Xue Yan. Response of Chara globularis and Hydrodictyon reticulatumto lead pollution: their survival, bioaccumulation, and defense. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2012;24(2):245-251.

Mallick N. Biotechnological potential of immobilized algae for wastewater N, P and metal removal: A Review. Bimetals. 2002;15:377-90.

Tam NFY, Lau PS, Wong YS. Wastewater inorganic N and P removal by immobilized Chlorella vulgaris. Wat. Sci. Technol. 1994;30:369–74.

Murugesan AG. Maheswari S, Bagirath G. Biosorption of cadmium by live and immobilized cells of Spirulina platensis. International Journal of Environmental Research. 2008;2:307-312.

Shashirekha V, Sridharan MR, Mahadeswara Swamy. Biosorption of trivalent chromium by free and immobilized blue green algae Kinetics and equilibrium studies. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 2008;43(4):390-401.

Azar Vahabisani, Chunjiang An. Use of biomass-derived adsorbents for the removal of petroleum pollutants from water: A mini-review. Environ Syst Res; 2021.

Lem NW, Glck BR. Biotechnological uses of cyanobacteria. Biotechnol. Adv. 1985;3:195-208.