EFFECT OF Punica granatum ON THE GLUTATHIONE S- TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF HAEMONCHUS Contortus- AN In vitro AND In silico ANALYSES

Main Article Content

R. SIVACHANDRAN
K. NAVANEETHA LAKSHMI
V. SIVAMURUGAN
P. PRIYA

Abstract

Haemonchosis is a disease caused by the pathogenic nematode Haemonchus contortus. This disease is wide spread and considered as an economically important disease of domestic ruminants worldwide. The present study deduces the effect of Punica granatum on the detoxification enzyme ‘Glutathione S- transferase’ (GST) of Haemonchus contortus. GST plays a crucial role in detoxification of various toxic metabolites in helminth parasites. Parasites incubated in various sub-lethal concentrations (10, 20 and 30 %) of P. granatum juice (PJ) caused significant inhibition in the GST activity of H. contortus. Inhibition in the GST activity of H. contortus deprive the parasites of its major defence mechanism and emulate the toxic metabolites which may be lethal to them. An in silico docking study was carried out to identify the potential phytochemicals in the fruit juice of P. granatum against the target protein GST(PDB ID: 2WS2) isolated from H. contortus using SwissDock online resource. The phytochemicals were screened based on their binding energies (-∆G Kcal/mol). Docking studies revealed that flavonoids such as Rutin, Procyanidin, Isoquercetin and Epigallocatechin 3-gallate have excellent binding capability in contrast to tannins and alkaloids. The presence of flavonoid derivatives in the fruit juice of P. granatum may exert antinematodal efficacy against H. contortus. Further investigations on the in vitro and In vivo activity of these compounds may throw light on the optimisation of their formulations and concentrations, which is necessary for the development of potent anthelmintic drug.

Keywords:
Haemonchus contortus, Punica granatum, glutathione S- transferase, docking

Article Details

How to Cite
SIVACHANDRAN, R., LAKSHMI, K. N., SIVAMURUGAN, V., & PRIYA, P. (2021). EFFECT OF Punica granatum ON THE GLUTATHIONE S- TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF HAEMONCHUS Contortus- AN In vitro AND In silico ANALYSES. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 42(24), 475-485. Retrieved from http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2731
Section
Original Research Article

References

Jilo K, Abdela N, Adem A. Insufficient Veterinary Service as a Major Constrants in Pastoral Area of Ethiopia: A Review. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2016;6: 94-101.

Kaminsky R, Ducray P, Jung M, Clover R, Rufener L, Bouvier J. A new class of anthelmintics effective against drug-resistant nematodes. 2008;Nature, 452:176-180.

Williams AR, Ropiak HM, Fryganas C, Desrues O, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum. Parasites and Vectors. 2014;7:518.

Polunin O, Stainton A. Pomegranate. In: Flowers of the Himalayas. New York, Oxford University Press. 1985;532–534..

Morton J. Pomegranate. In: Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami, Julia F. Morton publisher. 1987;352-355.

Jurenka J. Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a review. Alternative Medicine Review. 2008;3(2):128–144.

Dell'Agli M, Germana VG, Bulgari M, Basilico N, Romeo S, Bhattacharya D. Ellagitannins of the fruit rind of pomegranate (Punica granatum) antagonize in vitro the host inflammatory response mechanisms involved in the onset of malaria. Malaria Journal. 2010;9:208.

Lansky E., Harrison G, Froom P. Jiang WG. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) pure chemicals show possible synergistic inhibition of human PC-3 prostate cancer cell invasion across Matrigel. Investigational New Drugs. 2005;23(2):121–122.

Malik A, Mukhtar H. Prostate cancer prevention through pomegranate fruit. Cell Cycle. 2006;5(4):371–373.

Pantuck AJ, Leppert JT, Zomorodian N, Aronson W, Hong RJ, Barnard J. Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. 2006;12(13):4018–4026.

Toi M, Bando H, Ramachandran C, Melnick, SJ, Imai A, Fife, RS, Carr RE. Preliminary studies on the anti-angiogenic potential of pomegranate fractions in vitro and in vivo. Angiogenesis. 2003;6:121-128.

Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio MC, Sampaio FC, Higino JS. Use of Punica granatum as an antifungal agent against candidosis associated with denture stomatitis.2003;Mycoses,46:192-196.

Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS. Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy. 2006;6:79-92.

Guo C, Wei J, Yang J, Xu J, Pang W, Jiang,Y. Pomegranate juice is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in elderly subjects. Nutrition Research. 2008;28:72-77.

Hartman RE, Shah A, Fagan AM, Schwetye KE, Parsadanian M, Schulman RN. Pomegranate juice decreases amyloid load and improves behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Disease. 2006;24:506-515.

Brophy PM, Pritchard DI. Parasitic helminth glutathione S-transferases: an update on their potential as targets for immuno- and chemotherapy. Experimental Parasitology. 1994;79:89-96.

Farahnak A, Jefferies JR. Characterization of purified glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) from Fasciola hepatica and liver tissue by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2005;34:64-67.

Wang R, Ding Y, Liu R, Xiang L, Du L. Pomegranate: Constituents, Bioactivities and Pharmacokinetics. Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology. 2010; 4(2):77-87.

Veerakumari L, Lakshmi KN. In vitro effect of Allium sativum on lactate dehydrogenase activity of Haemonchus contortus. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 2006;20(1): 93-96.

Kawalek JC, Rew RS, Heavner J. Glutathione-S-transferase, a possible drug-metabolizing enzyme, in Haemonchus contortus: Comparative activity of a cambendazole-resistant and a susceptible strain. International Journal for Parasitology. 1984;14(2):173-175.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1951;193:265-275.

Line K, Isupov MN, van Rossum AJ, Brophy PM, Littlechild JA. The 2 Angstrom structure of a Nu-class GST from Haemonchus contortus; 2010.

DOI: 10.2210/pdb2WS2/pdb.

Grosdidier A, Zoete V, Michielin O. Swiss-Dock, a protein-small molecule docking web service based on EADock DSS. Nucleic Acids Research. 2011;9(Web Server issue):W270–W277.

DOI:10.1093/nar/gkr366.

Zar JH. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; 1984.

Fakae BB, Campbell AM. Barrett J, Scott IM, Teesdale-Spittle PH, Liebau E, Brophy, PM. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from parasitic nematodes by extracts from traditional Nigerian medicinal plants. Phytotherapy Research. 2000;14(8):630–634..

Veerakumari L, Chitra N. Glutathione S-transferase of Haemonchus contortus-A vulnerable target for Allium sativum and Andrographis paniculata. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2016;5(3):854-863.

Singh S, Irshadullah M. Kinetic studies and in vitro effect of anthelmintics on glutathione S-transferase of Fasciola gigantica. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 2003;17(1):27-31.

Liebau E, Eckelt VHO, Wildenurg G, Teesdale-Spittle PH, Brophy PM, Walter RD. Structural and functional analysis of a glutathione S-transferase from Ascaris suum. Biochemical Journal. 1997;324: 659–666.

Ganeshpurkar A, Saluja AK. The Pharmacological Potential of Rutin. 2017; Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 25:149–164.

Janbaz KH, Saeed SA, Gilani AH. Protective effect of rutin on paracetamol and CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:557–563.

Javed H, Khan MM, Ahmad A, Vaibhav K, Ahmad ME, Khan A, Ashafaq M. Rutin prevents cognitive impairments by ameliorating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rat model of sporadic dementia of Alzheimer type. Neuroscience. 2012;17:340–352.

La Casa C, Villegas I, Alarcón de la Lastra C, Motilva V, Martı́n Calero MJ. Evidence for protective and antioxidant properties of rutin, a natural flavone, against ethanol induced gastric lesions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000; 71(1–2):45-53.

Nassiri-Asl M, Mortazavi SR, Samiee-Rad F, Zangivand AA, Safdari F, Saroukhani S. The effects of rutin on the development of pentylenetetrazole kindling and memory retrieval in rats. Epilepsy & Behaviour. 2010;18:50–53.

Richetti SK, Blank M, Capiotti KM, Piato AL, Bogo MR,Vianna MR. Quercetin and rutin prevent scopolamine-induced memory impairment in zebrafish. Behavioural Brain Research. 2011;217:10–15.

Schubert SY, Lansky EP, Neeman I. Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;66:11-17.

Schwedhelm E, Maas R, Troost R, Böger RH. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antioxidants and their impact on systemic oxidative stress. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2003;42:437 –459.

Trumbeckaite S, Bernatoniene J, Majiene D, Jakstas V, Savickas A, Toleikis A. The effect of flavonoids on rat heart mitochondrial function. Biomedicine Pharmacotherapy. 2006;60:245–248.

Gonçalves R, Mateus N, Freitas VD. Influence of carbohydrates on the interaction of procyanidin B3 with trypsin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011;59: 11794–11802.

Jeremy Appleton ND. Evaluating the Bioavailability of Isoquercetin. Natural Medicine Journal. 2010;2(1).

Zwicker JI, Schlechter BL, Stopa JD, Liebman HA, Aggarwal A, Puligandla M, et al. Targeting protein disulfide isomerase with the flavonoid isoquercetin to improve hypercoagulability in advanced cancer. JCI Insight. 2019;4(4):e125851.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125851.

Bode AM, Dong Z. Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate and green tea catechins: United they work, divided they fail. Cancer Prevention Research. 2009;2(6):514-517.

Inacio JDF, Canto-Cavalheir MM, Menna-Barreto RFS, Almeida-Amaral EE. Mitochondrial damage contribute to epigallocatechin-3-gallate induced death in Leishmania amazonensis. Experimental Parasitology. 2012;132(2):151-155.