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Published: 2021-01-11

Page: 125-133


Department of Dentistry, King Salman Bin Abdul Aziz Hospital, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Department of Oral Diagnosis, College of Dentistry, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. and Department of Oral Pathology, Rashid Latif Dental College, Pakistan.


Department of Dentistry, King Salman Bin Abdul Aziz Hospital, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Oral potentially malignant disorders, (OPMDs) include a highly diverse forms of lesions and conditions with an increased risk for malignant transformation to oral cancer. The exact etiology of OPMDs is not fully understood yet, however, some preventable risk factors have been reported. The objective of this study is to recognize the correlation of preventable risk factors with OPMDs.

Patients and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at King Salman Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. A total of 1340 patients were screened with 6.49% (n=87) showing OPMDS. All Saudi and non-Saudi patients above fifteen years of age having suspicious lesions were included in the study after evaluation.

Results: The sample comprised 50 (58%) males and 37 (42%) females. Out of 87 patients, 75(86%) were Saudi and 11(14%) were non-Saudi. Buccal mucosa was the most common site for OPMDs (51.72%), followed by the tongue (31.03%). The results of our study reveal that the most prevalent age group was from 25 to 35 years followed by 36-45 years age group. Records of medical history showed that (3%) of patients had Type I Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes was observed in 16%, anemia in 10% and 2% had history of Hepatitis C. The highest number of OPMDs lesion was lichen planus (51%) followed by leukoplakia (19%). Smoking was found to be the most prevalent risk factor. Results showed that (11%) of OPMDs has soft tissue odontogenic trauma, (7%) of patients are on antihypertensive and antidiabetic medicines, (19%) were multifactorial and (30%) reported with unknown etiology.

Conclusion: On the basis of our findings, we suggest that all general practitioners and physicians should have enough knowledge about OPMDs. Healthy life style can prevent diabetes, anemia and hypertension. Early management of OPMDs can prevent major complications and progression into cancer.

Keywords: Oral potentially malignant disorders, risk factors, leukoplakia, erythroplakia, lichen planus, dental trauma, erosive lichen planus, proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, candidiasis.

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