Full Article - PDF

Published: 2022-03-21

Page: 135-146


Department of Pharmacology, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, Adichunchanagiri University, BG Nagara, Mandya, India.


Department of Pharmacology, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, Adichunchanagiri University, BG Nagara, Mandya, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


In the 21st century, the human population is suffering from a neurodegenerative disorder in which neuronal death occurs due to a long-term chronic condition causing substantial major health concerns. When neurons die, they are not regenerated, causing cognitive impairment, i.e., Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and dementia. This review concentrates only on Alzheimer’s disease aetiology and various plants having potent neuroprotective activity related to Alzheimer’s disease. The most common aetiology of Alzheimer’s disease is a deposition of APP protein, hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, a reduction in acetylcholine and oxidative stress, which are discussed briefly. Moreover, pertinent evidence is also discussed for medicinal plants with potent or promising neuroprotective activity related to Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Bacopa monnieri, neuroprotective, pathophysiology, withania somnifera

How to Cite

PRAJWAL, S., & KUMAR, M. R. (2022). THE NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON ALZHEIMER`S DISEASE: A REVIEW. Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, 4(1), 135–146. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Rasool Hassan BA. Medicinal plants (importance and uses). Pharmaceut Anal Acta. 2012;3(10):2153-435.

Ahvazi M, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Charkhchiyan MM, Mojab F, Mozaffarian VA, Zakeri H. Introduction of medicinal plants species with the most traditional usage in Alamut region. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR. 2012;11(1):185.

Kamboj VP. Herbal medicine. Current Science 2000; 8(1): 35-9.

Naveen KL, Bhattacharjee A. Medicinal herbs as neuroprotective agents. WJPPS. 2021;10(4): 675-689.

Alzheimer's Association. Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's & dementia. 2010 Mar 1;6(2):158-94.

Graeber MB, Mehraein P. Reanalysis of the first case of Alzheimer’s disease. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. 1999;249(3):S10-3.

Sivaraman D, Panneerselvam P, Muralidharan

P. Memory and brain neurotransmitter restoring potential of hydroalcoholic extract of ipomoea aquatica forsk on amyloid beta Aβ (25-35) induced cognitive deficits in alzheimer’s mice. Int J Pharmacol. 2016; 12(2):52–65.

DeTure MA, Dickson DW. The neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular neurodegeneration. 2019; 14(1):1-8.

Sivaraman D, Srikanth J. Discovery of novel monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors by molecular docking approach for alzheimer’s and parkinson’s disease Treatment. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2016;40(1):245-50.

He W, Goodkind D, Kowal PR. An aging world; 2015.

Gupta BM, Bala A. Alzheimer’s disease research in India: A scientometric analysis of publications output during 2002-11. Research in Neurology: An International Journal. 2013;0.

Hussien HM, Abd-Elmegied A, Ghareeb DA, Hafez HS, Ahmed HE, Abd El-moneam N. Neuroprotective effect of berberine against environmental heavy metals-induced neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's-like disease in rats. Food and chemical toxicology. 2018;111: 432-44.

Ji HF, Zhang HY. Multipotent natural agents to combat Alzheimer's disease. Functional spectrum and structural features 1. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2008;29(2):143-51.

Riederer P, Danielczyk W, Grünblatt E. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibition in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotoxicology. 2004;25 (1-2):271-7.

Masliah E, Mallory M, Deerinck T, Deteresa R, Lamont S, Miller A, Terry RD, Carragher B, Ellisman M. Re-evaluation of the structural organization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology. 1993;52(6):619-32.

Iqbal K, Liu F, Gong CX, Grundke-Iqbal I. Tau in Alzheimer disease and related tauopathies. Current Alzheimer Research. 2010;7(8):656- 64.

Francis PT, Palmer AM, Snape M, Wilcock GK. The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: a review of progress. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 1999;66(2):137-47.

Patil P, Thakur A, Sharma A, Flora SJ. Natural products and their derivatives as multifunctional ligands against Alzheimer's disease. Drug development research. 2020;81 (2):165-83.

Huang WJ, Zhang XI, Chen WW. Role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Biomedical reports. 2016;4(5):519-22.

Pocernich CB, Butterfield DA. Elevation of glutathione as a therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-molecular basis of disease. 2012;1822(5):625-30.

Tönnies E, Trushina E. Oxidative Stress, Synaptic Dysfunction, and Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2017;57(4):1105– 21.

Kim SU, de Vellis J. Microglia in health and disease. Journal of neuroscience research. 2005;81(3):302-13.

Solanki A, Zaveri M. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Abrus precatorius leaf: a review. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences review and research. 2012;13(2):71-6.

Choudhary GP, Jain AP. A promising cognition boosting effect of leaves of Abrus precatorius. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2019;9(4-s):1177-82.

Lomate KA, Murthy K, Adak VS, Shete RV. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological values of Aegle marmelos. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2021;11(2-S):162- 6.

Raheja S, Girdhar A, Kamboj A, Lather V, Pandita D. Aegle marmelos leaf extract ameliorates the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in male rats. Life sciences. 2019;221:196-203.

Kumar P, Krishnakanth K, Alla J. Effect of Aegle marmelos methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit pulp on learning and memory in albino rats. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 2020; 9(3): 403-7.

Gudalwar BR, Nimbalwar MG, Panchale WA, Wadekar AB, Manwar JV, Bakal RL. Allium sativum, a potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine for better health. GSC Advanced Research and Reviews. 2021;6(3):220-32.

Jeong JH, Jeong HR, Jo YN, Kim HJ, Shin JH, Heo HJ. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;13(1):1-1.

Jain PK, Das D, Jain P, Jain P. Pharmacognostic and pharmacological aspect of Bacopa monnieri: A review. rays (Fig. 2). 2016;8:9.

Uabundit N, Wattanathorn J, Mucimapura S, Ingkaninan K. Cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Bacopa monnieri in Alzheimer's disease model. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2010;127(1):26-31.

Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Neuropsychop- harmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi). Indian J Pharmacol 1997;29:S359-65.

Jamil SS, Nizami Q, Salam M. Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban—a review. Natural Product Radiace. 2007;6(2):158-170.

Rahman MM, Sayeed MS, Haque MA, Hassan MM, Islam SA. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer and anti-diabetic activities of Centella asiatica. J Nat Prod Plant Resour. 2012;2(4):504-11.

Deodhar KA, Shinde NW. Celastrus paniculatus: Traditional uses and Ethnobotanical study. Ind J of Adv in Plant Research. 2015;2(1):18-21.

Bhanumathy M, Chandrasekar SB, Chandur U, Somasundaram T. Phyto-pharmacology of Celastrus paniculatus: an Overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research. 2010;2(3):176- 81.

Alama B, Haque E. Anti-alzheimer and antioxidant activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;7(1): 49-56.

Momin AH, Acharya SS, Gajjar AV. Coriandrum sativum-review of advances in phytopharmacology. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2012;3(5):1233.

Elahdadi-Salmani M, Khorshidi M, Ozbaki J. Reversal Effect of Coriandrum sativum Leaves Extract on Learning and Memory Deficits Induced by Epilepsy in Male Rat. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2015;17(3).

Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacology of Crocus sativus-A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2016;6(6):8-38.

Khalili M, Hamzeh F. Effects of active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocin on streptozocin-induced model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease in male rats. Iranian biomedical journal. 2010;14(1-2):59.

Jain S, Shrivastava S, Nayak S, Sumbhate S. Recent trends in Curcuma longa Linn. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2007;1(1).

Lohit K, Anthony N, Pandit AA, George J, Jose M, Rao M, Xavier D. Assessment of Curcuma longa linn. on learning and memory in rats. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2015;4(6):1086.

Feng L, Zhai YY, Xu J, Yao WF, Cao YD, Cheng FF, Bao BH, Zhang L. A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2019;245: 112109.

Jung WY, Kim H, Park HJ, Jeon SJ, Park HJ, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Jang DS, Kim DH, Ryu JH. The ethanolic extract of the Eclipta prostrate L. ameliorates the cognitive impairment in mice induced by scopolamine. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2016;190:165-73.

Sarma U, Borah VV, Saikia KK, Hazarika NK. Enhydra fluctuans: A review on its pharmacological importance as a medicinal plant and prevalence and use in North-East India. Int. J. Pharmcy Pharm. Sci. 2014;6:48- 50.

Lopa SS, Al-Amin M, Hasan M, Ahammed M, Islam KM, Alam AH, Tanaka T, Sadik M. Phytochemical Analysis and Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Enhydra fluctuans Relevant in the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease. International Journal of Food Science; 2021.

Amalraj A, Gopi S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Asafoetida: A review. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. 2017;7(3):347-59.

Vijayalakshmi SA, Bhat P, Chaturvedi A, Bairy KL, Kamath S. Evaluation of the effect of Ferula asafoetida Linn. gum extract on learning and memory in Wistar rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2012;44(1):82.

More MP, Motule AS, Dongare PN, Patinge PA, Jawarkar RD, Bakal RL, Manwar JV. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical application of Ginkgo biloba. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;16(2):229-40.

Ge W, Ren C, Xing L, Guan L, Zhang C, Sun X, Wang G, Niu H, Qun S. Ginkgo biloba extract improves cognitive function and increases neurogenesis by reducing Aβ pathology in 5× FAD mice. American Journal of Translational Research. 2021;13(3):1471.

Sharma D, Namdeo P, Singh P. Phytochemistry & Pharmacological Studies of Glycyrrhiza glabra: A Medicinal Plant Review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2021;67(1):187-194.

Chakravarthi KK, Avadhani R. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine. 2013;4(2):420.

Hasanein P. Glabridin as a major active isoflavan from Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) reverses learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats. Acta Physiologica Hungarica. 2011;98(2):221-30.

Jaswinder K, Rajmeet S, Gurinder S, Harpreet K, Jasvir K, Manpreet K, Parminder S, JaspreetK. A systematic review on Huperzia serrata. Int. J. Pharmac. Phytochem. Res. 2016;8(8): 1250-5.

Ohba T, Yoshino Y, Ishisaka M, Abe N, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Oyama M, Tabira T, Hara H. Japanese Huperzia serrata extract and the constituent, huperzine A, ameliorate the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 2015;79(11): 1838-44.

Saddiqe Z, Naeem I, Maimoona A. A review of the antibacterial activity of Hypericum perforatum L. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2010;131(3):511-21.

Cao Z, Wang F, Xiu C, Zhang J, Li Y. Hypericum perforatum extract attenuates behavioral, biochemical, and neurochemical abnormalities in Aluminum chloride-induced Alzheimer’s disease rats. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy. 2017;91:931-7.

Devi B, Sharma N, Kumar D, Jeet K. Morus alba Linn: A phytopharmacological review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;5(2):14-8.

Kuk EB, Jo AR, Oh SI, Sohn HS, Seong SH, Roy A, Choi JS, Jung HA. Anti-Alzheimer’s disease activity of compounds from the root bark of Morus alba L. Archives of pharmacal research. 2017;40(3):338-49.

Paarakh PM. Nigella sativa Linn.–A comprehensive review. IJNPR. 2010;1(4):409- 429.

Hosseini M, Mohammadpour T, Karami R, Rajaei Z, Sadeghnia HR, Soukhtanloo M. Effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in rats and its possible mechanism. Chinese journal of integrative medicine. 2015;21(6):438-44.

Siva M, Shanmugam KR, Shanmugam B, Venkata SG, Ravi S, Sathyavelu RK, Mallikarjuna K. Ocimum sanctum: a review on the pharmacological properties. Int. J. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. 2016;5:558-65.

Raghavendra M, Maiti R, Kumar S, Acharya SB. Role of Ocimum sanctum in the experimental model of Alzheimer’s disease in rats. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP). 2009;3(1).

Jena J, Gupta AK. Ricinus communis Linn: a phytopharmacological review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;4(4):25-9.

Lee E, Eom JE, Kim HL, Kang DH, Jun KY, Jung DS, Kwon Y. Neuroprotective effect of undecylenic acid extracted from Ricinus communis L. through inhibition of μ-calpain. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2012;46(1-2):17-25.

Jain P, Sharma HP. A potential ethnomedicinal plant Semecarpus anacardium Linn. A review. Int J Res Pharm Chem. 2013;3(3):564-72.

Gouda SS et al., A Study on CNS Effects of Milk Extract of Nuts of Semecarpus anacardium. linn, (ANACARDIACEAE). 2007;49-63.

Rathinamoorthy R, Thilagavathi G. Terminalia chebula-review on pharmacological and biochemical studies. Int J PharmTech Res. 2014;6(1):97-116.

Rao SN, Palaksha MN, Satish S. The effects of ethanolic extract in dried fruits of Terminalia chebula on learning and memory in mice. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;3(20):59 -62.

Spandana U, Ali SL, Nirmala T, Santhi M, Babu SS. A review on Tinospora cordifolia. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research. 2013;4(2):61-8.

Agarwal A, Malini S, Bairy KL, Rao MS. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2002;34(5): 339-49.

Devi VS, Rao MG. Valeriana wallichii–a rich aroma root plant. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2014;3:1516-25.

Pathan A, Alshahrani A. Neuroprotective Effects of Valeriana wallichii on Scopolamine Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Rats. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018;10(6s).

Gupta GL, Rana AC. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): a review. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2007;1(1).

Birla H, Keswani C, Rai SN, Singh SS, Zahra W, Dilnashin H, Rathore AS, Singh SP. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera in BPA induced-cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in mice. Behavioral and Brain Functions. 2019;15(1):9.

Prajwal S, Afrid S, Nischith S, Kumar MR. Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and traditional uses of Alhagi maurorum: An Updated Review. Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences. 2021;20:221 -32.