Published: 2020-12-28

Page: 526-529


Department of Microbiology, SS Subharti Medical College, Ras Bihari Bose Subharti University, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, India.


The West Bengal University of Health Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The disease caused by Rickettsiae in human, the most widespread is Scrub typhus. It exists as zoonoses in nature between certain species of trombiculid mites and their small mammals i.e. rats, field mice, shrews. In this humans are the accidental host of the mite-rodent-mite cycle. Scrub typhus has re-emerged in India with ancient outbreaks. It is presently seen in increasing numbers in various south Indian states, north east and of late from north Indian states, and Himalayan foothills –Himachal Pradesh and uttrakhand. The mode of transmission is the bite of infected larval mites and the incubation period is usually 10 to 12 days; varies from 6 to 12 days. Scrub typhus resembles epidemic typhus clinically. The onset is acute with chills and fever is about 104° to 105°F, headache, malaise, prostration and a macular rash appearing around the 5th day of illness, generalized lymphadenopathy and lymphocytosis are common. The main abide in tsutsugamushi disease diagnosis remains in serology. The oldest test is that the Weil-Felix OX K agglutination reaction that is cheap, easy to perform and results are come in  one-night. ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi offers advantages of being able to test large number of samples at a time and can be automated. Indirect fluorescent antibody assay is the gold standard assay for the serological detection of antibodies in scrub typhus. In children and pregnant women Azithromycin is preferred. Rifampicin is an alternative drug but is not to be given alone to avoid the development of drug resistant.

Keywords: Scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi typhus, mite born fever, chigger, prevention.

How to Cite

VERMA, G., & BASAK, A. (2020). STATUS OF SCRUB TYPHUS: A REVIEW. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 3(1), 526–529. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Rathi N, Rathi A. Rickettsial infection: Indian perspective. Indian Pediatr. 2010;47:157-164.

Robert B Wallace, Neal Kohatsu, John M Last. Textbook of public Health and Preventive medicine. 15th ed. New York. NY: McGrew Hill Publishers. 2008;362-368.

Gavin C KWK, Rehard JM, Deniel HP, Paul NN, Stuart DB. Review: diagnosis of Scrub Typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82930:368-70.

Choudhary D, Goyal S. Scrub typhus- resurgence of a forgotten killer. Indian J Anaesth. 2013;57:135-136.

Xu G, Walker DH, Jupiter D, Melby PC, Arcari CM. A review of the global epidemiology of scrub typhus. PLoS Negi Tropsess. 2018;11[11]:e0006062. Available: Accessed on 12.12.2018

World Health Organization. A brief guide to emerging infectious disease and zoonoses, WHO regional office of South East Asia, 2014;76. Available: ergingdisease/ebola/a brief guide emerging infectious disease.pdf?ua=1. Accessed on 12.11.2018.

Rakholia R. Scrub typhus meningoencephalitis in children from a tertiary care centre, uttrakhand, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2017;7:388-392.

Mahajan SK. Scrub typhus. J Assoc Physician India. 2005;53:954-8.

Rungta N. Scrub typhus: Emerging cause of multiorgan dysfunction. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2014;18:489-91. Available: 138137 Accessed on 11.11.2018

Gavin CKW, Koh, Maudi RJ, Paris DH, Newton PN, Blacksell SD. Review: Diagnosis of scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82(3):368-370.

Vivekanandan M, Mani A, Priya YS, Singh AJ, Jayakumar S, Purly S. Outbreak of scrub typhus in pondicherry. JAPI. 2010;58-24-28.

Jensenius M, Fournier PE, Raoult D. Rickettsiosis and the international traveler. Clin Infec Dis. 2004;39[10]:1493-149.

Tamura A, Ohashi N, Urakami H, Miyamura S. Classification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in a new genus, Orientiagen. Nov, as Orienta tsutsugamushi comb.nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995;45:589-591.

Palmer SR, Lord Soulsby, Torgerson PR, David WG Brown, editors. Oxford text book of zoonoses, Biology, clinical practice and Public Health.Control.2nd Edition, Oxford Press; 2011.

Daryl J Kelly, Allen L Richards, Joseph Temenak, Daniel Strickman, Gregory A. Dasch. The past and present threat of rickettsial diseases to military medicine and international Public Health. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(4):145-169.

Kollars TM, Bodhidatta D, Phulsuksombati D, et al. Short report: variation in the 56kD typespecific antigen gene of orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from patients in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68(3):299-300. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.299.

Watt G, Chouriyagune C, Ruangweerayud r, et al. Scrub typhus infectious poorly responsive to antibiotics in nortern Thiland. Lancet. 1996;348(9020):86-89. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)02501-9 PMID 8676722