UROGENITAL SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN AMAGUNZE, ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

Main Article Content

VICTOR S. NJOM

Abstract

Urogenital schistosomiasis has consistently provoked attention due to its consequences on the infected population. The prevalence and infection status in endemic rural areas needs constant updating. Therefore, this study investigated the current prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis among school pupils in a schistosomiasis endemic community. Urine samples were microscopically examined for eggs of Schistosoma haematobium while reagent strips were used to determined hematuria. Over all population prevalence was 14.18% (n=19). Prevalence was age and sex dependent. Prevalence of infection was significantly (P<0.05) higher in pupils within the age group of 10-14 years with 10.45%(14) while those within 5-9 years old had a prevalence of 3.73%. Male pupils were more (P<0.05) infected (8.9%, n=12) than females (5.22%, n=7). Cases of hematuria were not significantly different (P>0.05) between sexes though males had 2.23% while females had 1.49%. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Amagunze increased when compared to previous reports. Renewed education and treatment are needed to control and eliminate the infection.

Keywords:
Schistosomiasis, hematuria, cercariae, neoplasia, malignancy.

Article Details

How to Cite
NJOM, V. S. (2021). UROGENITAL SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN AMAGUNZE, ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(2), 1-6. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/1880
Section
Original Research Article

References

Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH. Human schistosomiasis. The Lancet. 2014;383(9936):2253-64.

Jamieson BG. Schistosoma: Biology, pathology and control: CRC Press; 2017.

Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J, Kestens L. Human schistosomiasis. The Lancet. 2006;368(9541):1106-18.

Chen M-G. Assessment of morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum infection in China. Infect Dis Poverty. 2014;3(1):6-.

WHO. Technical documents and guidelines 2013. Report of an informal consultation on schistosomiasis control. World Health Organization; 2011.

Salawu OT, Odaibo AB. Schistosomiasis among pregnant women in rural communities in Nigeria. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2013;122(1):1-4.

Nwaorgu OC, Okeibunor J, Madu E, Amazigo U, Onyegegbu N, Evans D. A school‐based schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis control programme in Nigeria: acceptability to community members. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 1998;3(10):842-9.

Mafe M, Von Stamm T, Utzinger J, N'goran E. Control of urinary schistosomiasis: an investigation into the effective use of questionnaires to identify high‐risk communities and individuals in Niger State, Nigeria. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2000;5(1):53-63.

Singh K, Muddasiru D, Singh J. Current status of schistosomiasis in Sokoto, Nigeria. Parasite epidemiology and control. 2016;1(3):239-44.

Mwinzi PN, Muchiri G, Wiegand RE, Omedo M, Abudho B, Karanja DM, et al. Predictive value of school-aged Children's schistosomiasis prevalence and egg intensity for other age groups in western Kenya. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2015;93(6):1311-7.

Donohue R, Mashoto K, Mubyazi G, Madon S, Malecela M, Michael E. Biosocial determinants of persistent schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Tanzania despite repeated treatment. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2017;2(4):61.

Ezeamama AE, McGarvey ST, Hogan J, Lapane KL, Bellinger DC, Acosta LP, et al. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;6(5):e1634.

Greenberg RM. New approaches for understanding mechanisms of drug resistance in schistosomes. Parasitology. 2013;140(Special Issue 12):1534-46.

Hajissa K, Muhajir AEMA, Eshag HA, Alfadel A, Nahied E, Dahab R, et al. Prevalence of schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among school children in Um-Asher Area, Khartoum, Sudan. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11(1):779.

Gryseels B. The relevance of schistosomiasis for public health. Tropical medicine and parasitology: official organ of Deutsche Tropenmedizinische Gesellschaft and of Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). 1989;40(2):134-42.

Van der Werf MJ, de Vlas SJ, Brooker S, Looman CW, Nagelkerke NJ, Habbema JDF, et al. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta tropica. 2003;86(2-3):125-39.

Ekwunife C, Ukaga C, Okafor F. Urinary schistosomiasis in Anambra State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2004;25(1):127-31.

Anosike JC, Oguwuike UT, Nwoke BE, Asor JE, Ikpeama CA, Nwosu DC, et al. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis among rural Ezza farmers in the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 2006;13(1):13.

Udonsi J. Human community ecology of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to snail vector bionomics in the Igwun River Basin of Nigeria. Tropical medicine and parasitology: official organ of Deutsche Tropenmedizinische Gesellschaft and of Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). 1990;41(2):131-5.

Okafor FC, Ngang I. Freshwater Snails of Niger–cem, Nkalagu Eastern Nigeria, Observations on some Demographic aspects of the Schistosome-transmitting Bulinids. Animal Research International. 2004;1(2):120-4.

Mitchell KM, Mutapi F, Mduluza T, Midzi N, Savill NJ, Woolhouse ME. Predicted impact of mass drug administration on the development of protective immunity against Schistosoma haematobium. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2014;8(7):e3059.

Mutapi F, Maizels R, Fenwick A, Woolhouse M. Human schistosomiasis in the post mass drug administration era. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2017;17(2):e42-e8.

Evans DS, King JD, Eigege A, Umaru J, Adamani W, Alphonsus K, et al. Assessing the WHO 50% prevalence threshold in school-aged children as indication for treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis in adults in central Nigeria. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2013;88(3):441-5.

Amuta E, Houmsou R. Prevalence, intensity of infection and risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area, Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2014;7(1):34-9.

Ozumba N, Christensen N, Nwosu A, Nwaorgu O. Endemicity, focality and seasonality of transmission of human schistosomiasis in Amagunze village, eastern Nigeria. Journal of Helminthology. 1989;63(3):206-12.

Ezeadila JO, Okoli I, Agomuo M, Aneke FC, Egbuche CM. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among community primary school pupils in Amagunze, Enugu State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations. 2015;7(3):46-51.

Etard J-F, Audibert M, Dabo A. Age-acquired resistance and predisposition to reinfection with Schistosoma haematobium after treatment with praziquantel in Mali. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 1995;52(6):549-58.

Chan M, Nsowah-Nuamah N, Adjei S, Wen S, Hall A, Bundy D. Predicting the impact of school-based treatment for urinary schistosomiasis given by the Ghana Partnership for Child Development. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1998;92(4):386-9.

Wang X, Gurarie D, Mungai PL, Muchiri EM, Kitron U, King CH. Projecting the long-term impact of school-or community-based mass-treatment interventions for control of Schistosoma infection. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2012;6(11):e1903.

Salawu OT, Odaibo AB. Urogenital schistosomiasis and urological assessment of hematuria in preschool-aged children in rural communities of Nigeria. Journal of pediatric urology. 2014;10(1):88-93.

WHO. Female genital schistosomiasis: a pocket atlas for clinical health-care professionals. World Health Organization; 2015. Report No.: 9241509295.

Atalabi TE, Adoh SD, Eze KM. The current epidemiological status of urogenital schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Katsina State, Nigeria: An imperative for a scale up of water and sanitation initiative and mass administration of medicines with Praziquantel. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2018;12(7):e0006636.