Main Article Content



Late blight of potato is the most important polycyclic oomycete disease globally and is caused by Phytophtora infestans, which resulted in yield loss ranged from 5-100%. The pathogen spores can be spread via wind, rain splash, seed tubers, farm equipment, and animals. Losses due to Phytophthora infestans have been estimated to € 12 billion per annum, of which the losses in developing countries have been estimated around € 10 billion per annum. Disease assessment is done at the stage at which the crop tends to be most vulnerable to late blight epidemics, which is one to two weeks after flowering (45 to 65 days old) and each sample is assessed by the standard scale 1-100%. Late blight of potato can be managed effectively through the integration of all strategies such as removal of infected volunteer potato and other hosts, adjusting the date of planting and clean seed tuber, use of resistant varieties, seed dressing fungicides like metalaxyl, and use of Pseudomonas and Bacillus biosurfactants etc. Therefore, it is valuable to use integrated disease management to tackle the problem as best management approach.


Integrated disease management, Late blight, Phytophtora infestans, Polycyclic, Yield loss.

Article Details

How to Cite
BERHAN, M. (2021). REVIEW ON EPIDEMIOLOGY, SAMPLING TECHNIQUES, MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES OF LATE BLIGHT (Phytophthora infestans) OF POTATO AND ITS YIELD LOSS. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 7(1), 9-17. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Son SW, Kim HY, Choi GJ, Lim HK, Jang KS, Lee SO, Sung ND, Kim JC. Bikaverin and fusaric acid from Fusarium oxysporum show anti oomycete activity against P. infestans. J. of Applied Microbiology. 2008; 104:692-698.

Latijnhouwers M, Ligterink W, Vleeshouwers VG, VanWest P, Govers F. A Galpha subunit controls zoospore mobility and virulence in the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Mol Microbiol. 2004; 51:925-936.

LR Cooke, HTAM Schepers, A Hermansen, RA Bain, NJ Bradshaw, F Ritchie, DS Shaw, A Evenhuis, GJT Kessel, JGN Wander, B Andersson, JG Hansen, A Hannukkala, R Naerstad, BJ Nielsen. Epidemiology and Integrated Control of Potato Late Blight in Europe. Potato research. 2011; 54: 183-222.

Binyam Tsedaley. Late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans) Biology, Economic Importance and its Management Approaches. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(25):215-225.

Fry WE, Goodwin SB, Dyer AT, Matuszak JM, Drenth A, Tooley PW, Sujkowski, LS, Koh YJ, Cohen BA, Spielman LJ, Deahl KL, Inglis DA, Sandlan KP. Historical and recent migrations of Phytophthora infestans: Chronology, pathways, and implications. Plant Disease. 1993; 77:653-661.

Agrios GN. Plant Pathology. 5th Edition, Academic press, London; 2005.

Lal M, Sharma S, Yadav S, Kumar S. Management of Potato late blight. Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Bihar, India. 2018;180.

Skelsey P. Multi-scale modeling of Potato late blight epidemics. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. 2008;257.

Kirk W, Wharton P, Hammerschmidt R, Abu-el Samen F, Douches D. Late Blight. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2945; 2013.

Judelson HS, Blanco FA. The spores of Phytophthora: Weapons of the plant destroyer. Microbiology. 2005; 3:47–58.

Turkensteen LJ, Flier WG, Wanningen R, Mulder A. Production, survival and infectivity of oospores of Phytophthora infestans. Plant Pathol. 2000; 49:688–696.

Dey TK, Hossain M, Kadian MS, Hossain S, Bonierbale M, Mahmud AA. Prevalence, epidemiology and management of potato late blight in Bangladesh. Potato Journal. 2010;37(3–4):99–102.

Chindi A, Giorgis GW, Solomon A, Tessama L, Negash K. Rapid Multiplication Techniques (RMTs): A Tool for the Production of Quality Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia. Asian J. Crop Sci. 2014; 6:176–185.

Lal M. Fungal foliar diseases of potato and their management (Course on disease and pest management in potato complied and produced by Sanjeev Sharma, Vinay Sagar, Ravinder Kumar, Sridhar Jandrajupalli, Dhiraj Kumar Singh) published by ICAR-CPRI Shimla. 2016;22-27.

Becktell MC, Daughtrey ML, Fry WE. Temperature and leaf wetness requirements for pathogen establishment, incubation period, and sporulation of phytophthora infestans on petunia x hybrida. Plant Dis. 2005; 89:975-979.

Sharma S, Sundaresh S, Singh BP. Late blight of potato. In: BP singh, M Nagesh, Sanjeev Sharma, Vinay Sagar, A Jeevvlatha and J Sridhar, editors. A manual on diseases and pest of potato-Technical Bulletin No. 101 ICAR-central potato research institute, Shimla, HP, India. 2015;1-6.

Mizubuti ESG, Aylor DE, Fry WE. Survival of Phytophthora infestans sporangia exposed to solar radiation. Phytopathology. 2000; 90:78-84.

Haverkort AJ, Struik PC, Visser RGF, Jacobsen E. Applied biotechnology to control late blight in potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. Potato Res. 2009; 52:249-64.

Ephrem Guchi. Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3:34-42.

Guenthner JF, Michael KC, Nolte P. The economic impact of potato late blight on US growers. Potato Resource. 2001; 44:121–125.

Haq I, Rashid A, Khan SA. Relative efficacy of various fungicides, chemicals and biochemicals against late blight of potato, Pakistan. Journal of Phytopathology. 2008; 21:129-133.

Ahmed N, Khan MA, Khan NA, Ali MA. Prediction of potato late blight disease based upon environmental factors in Faisalabad. J. of Plant Pathol. and Microbiol. 2015; 3:1-6.

Bekele Kassa, Yaynu Hiskias. Tuber yield loss assessment of potato cultivars with different levels of resistance to late blight. In: "Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference, of Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia. (Eshetu Bekele, Abdurahman Abdulahi, Aynekulu Yemane. eds.), CPSE, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. 1996;149-152.

Olanya OM, Adipala E, Hakiza JJ, Kedera JC, Ojiambo P, Mukalazi JM, Forbes G, Nelson R. Epidemiology and population dynamics of Phytophthora infestans in Sub-Saharan Africa: Progress and Constraints. African Crop Science Journal. 2001; 9:181-193.

Fekede Girma, Amare Ayalew, Nigussie Dechassa. Management of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) through Potato cultivars and Fungicides in Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia. International Journal of Life Sciences. 2013;2(3):130-138.

Binyam Tsedaley, Temam Hussen and Tekalign Tsegaw. Tuber yield loss assessment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and its management Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014b;4(23):45-54.

Mukalazi J, Adipala E, Sengooba T, Hakiza JJ, Olanya M, Kidanemariam HM. Variability in potato late blight severity and its Effect on Tuber Yield in Uganda. African Crop Science Journal. 2001;9(1):195-201.

Umesh Goutam, Kajal Thakur, Neha Salaria, Sarvjeet Kukreja. Recent Approaches for Late Blight Disease Management of Potato Caused by Phytophthora infestans. P. Gehlot, J. Singh (eds.), Fungi and their Role in Sustainable Development: Current Perspectives. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018; 311- 325.

Jan W Henfling. Late Blight of Potato. Second edition. International potato center, Lima Peru. 1987; 25.

Arora RK, Shrama S, Singh BP. Late blight disease of potato and its management. Potato Journal. 2014; 41:16-40.

Roy SK, Sharma RC, Trehan SP. Integrated nutrient management by using farmyard manure and fertilizers in potato-sun lower-paddy rice rotation in the Punjab. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 2001; 137:271-278.

Tsedaley B. Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans) Biology, Economic Importance and its Management Approaches. Journal of Biology. 2014;4(25):215–226.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). Potato World: Africa-International Year of the Potato 2008. Rome; 2008.

Oostendorp M, Kuntz W, Dietrich B, Staub T. Induced disease resistance in plants by chemicals. Eur J. Plant Pathol. 2001; 107:19–28.

Bektas Y, Eulgem T. Synthetic plant defense elicitors. Front. Plant Sci. 2015; 5:1-17.

Beckerman J. Fungicide resistance management. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Purdue Extension. Oklahoma; 2008.

Khan MA, Singh BP, Kaushik SK, Lal M. Evaluation of antifungal potential extracts against potato pathogens. National Seminar on emerging problems of potato, CPRI Shimla. 2014;143.

Haas D, Defago G. Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by luorescent pseudomonads. Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 2005; 3: 307-319.

Ajay S, Sunaina V. Direct inhibition of Phytophthora infestans, the causal organism of late blight of potato by Bacillus antagonist. Potato J. 2005; 32:179-180.

Banat IM, Makkar RS, Cameotra SS. Potential commercial application of microbial surfactants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2000; 53:495-508.

Wang G, Liu Z, Lin R, Li E, Mao Z, Ling J, Yang Y, Yin WB, Xie B. Biosynthesis of antibiotic Leucin statins in bio-control fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum and their inhibition on Phytophthora revealed by genome mining. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12(7):1-30.

Binyam Tsedaley, Temam Hussen, Tekalign Tsegaw. Tuber yield loss assessment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and its management Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. J. Biol. Agric. Healthc. 2014a; 4:45–54.