Main Article Content
The near infrared reﬂectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to develop calibration equations to predict chickpea haulm (Cicer arietinum) feed quality traits and mineral constituents. A total of 1348 cultivars of chickpea representing a nation-wide range of environments in Ethiopia and genotypic diversity (113 cultivars and 7 landraces) used in the framework of the Ethiopian National Chickpea Breeding and Genetics Program were scanned using a FOSS 5000 spectrophotometer. 130 samples representing the spectral characteristics of the chickpea haulms, selected using WinISI II software V.1.50, were chemically analyzed for the development of the calibration equations. A modiﬁed partial least-squares (MPLS) regression with cross validation was used to conﬁrm the equations and identify possible spectral outliers (GH-value>3, where GH is the Mahalanobis distance). Values for coeﬃcient of determination (R), standard error of prediction SEP(C) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were used for validation of the equations. Results showed ash (r =0.97; RPD=3.64), crude protein (r2= 0.99; RPD = 8.09), acid detergent ﬁber (r2 = 0.99; RPD = 6.43), neutral detergent ﬁber (r2=0.99; RPD = 6.65), lignin (r2 = 0.99; RPD =5), ME (r=0.99; RPD=24.3), IVOMD (r=0.99; RPD=26). These results show that the calibration equations can accurately predict nutritional quality traits of chickpea haulms. The use of the NIRS method can facilitate cost-eﬀective and rapid decision making by researchers and farmers.
Solomon Gizaw, Azage Tegegne, Berhanu Gebremedhin, Dirk Hoekstra. Sheep and goat production and marketing systems in Ethiopia: Characteristics and strategies for improvement. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 23. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 2010; 58.
IBC (Institute of Biodiversity Conservation). Ethiopia: Third country report on the state of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2012.
Yeshitila Mekbib. Phenotypic variation and local customary use of Ethiopian potato (Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew). Master Thesis; 2007.
Bampidis VA, Christodoulou V. A review Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) in animal nutrition: Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2011:168(2011):1–20.
Jukanti AK, Gaur PM, Gowda LLC, Chibbar RN. Nutritional quality and health benefits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): A review. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012;108:S11-S26.
Choudhary P, Khanna SM, Jain PK, Bharadwaj C, Kumar J, Lakhera PC, et al. Molecular characterization of primary gene pool of chickpea based on ISSR markers. Biochem Genet. 2013;51:306–322.
Lopez S, Prieto M, Dijkstra J, Dhanoa MS, J France. Statistical evaluation of mathematical models for microbial growth. Int. J. Food Microbiology. 2004;96(3):289-30.
Lopez S, Davies DR, Giraldez FJ, Dhanoa MS, J Dijkstra. Assessement of nutritive value of cereal and legume straw based on chemical composition and in-vitro digestibility. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2005;85(9): 1550-1557.
Bruno-Soares A, Aberu C, Guedes C, A Dias-da-Silva. Chemical composition, DM and NDF degradation kinetics in rumen of seven legume straws. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 20009;3:75-80.
Conzen JP. Multivariate calibration, a practical guide for developing methods in the quantitative analytical chemistry. Ettlingen, Germany: BrukerOptik GmbH; 2006.
Foss North America. ISIscan and WinISI Software Training Class; 2008.
Stuth J, Jama A, T Doug. Direct and indirect means of predicting forage quality through reflectance spectroscopy. Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management, 2126 TAMU, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843-2126, USA. Field Crops Research. 2003;84(2003): 45–56.
Available:www. Science direct.com
Eldin A. Near Infra Red Spectroscopy, Wide Spectra of Quality Control, In Tech Publishers, Croatia. 2011;238-248.
Befekadu K. Technical performance evaluation of domestic roof water harvesting schemes (the case of Minjar and Shenkora Woreda schemes). A thesis submitted to the school of graduate studies Addis Ababa University. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Master of Science Degree in Hydraulics Engineering. 2008;125.
Damtew B, Zemede A, Beyene P, Habte T. Ethno-botanical study of plants used for protection against insect bite and for the treatment of livestock health problems in rural areas of Akaki District, Eastern Shewa, Ethiopia. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2012;1(2):40- 52.
Abera Yifru, Kebede Mesfin. Assessment on the Status of Some Micronutrients in Vertisols of the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science. 2013; 3(5):169-173.
Kebede M, Tadesse T. Indexing soil P to recommend for durum wheat in East Shewa, Oromia region. Report and Opinion. 2011; 3(1).
AOAC. Official method of analysis, 15th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, USA; 1990.
Van Soest PJ, JB Robertson. Analyses of forage and fibrous foods. A Laboratory Manual for Anim B Sci, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 1985;613:98-110.
Menke KH, Steingass H. Estimation of the energy feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in-vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development. 1988;28:7– 55.
Shenk JS, Westerhaus MO. Calibration the ISI way. in: Near infrared spectroscopy: The Future Waves. Davie AMC, Williams P, eds. NIR Publications, Chichester, United Kingdom. 1996;199-292.
Lobos I, Gou P, Hube S, Saldaña R, Alfaro M. Evaluation of potential nirs to predict pastures nutritive value. National Institute for Agricultural Research, Remehue Research Centre, Osorno, Chile. IRTA, Institut de Recerca. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 2013;13(2):463-468.
SAS. Statistical Analysis system. Statistics Software. Version 9.1.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA; 2002.
Shenk JS, Westerhaus MO. Analysis of agriculture and food products by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. ISI Monograph. 1993;116.
Fikadu D, Bediye S, Sileshi Z. Characterizing and predicting chemical composition and in-vitro digestibility of crop residue using near infrared reflectance spectros copy (NIRS). Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 2010a; 22.
Corson DC, Waghorn GC, Ulyatt MJ, Lee J, NIRS: Forage analysis and livestock feeding. Proceedingsof the New Zealand Grassland Association. Ag. Research Grasslands, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North. 1999;61:127–132.
Lebot V, Champagne A, Malapa R, Shiley D. NIR determination of major constituents in tropical root and tubercrop flours. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009;57: 10539–10547.
Williams PC. Implementation of near infrared technology. In: Near infrared technology in the agricultural and food industries. Eds Williams PC, Norris KH, American Association of Cereal Chemist, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. 2001;145-169.
Decruyenaere V, Lecomte PH, Demarquilly C, Aufrere J, Stilmant D, Buldgen A. Evaluation of green forage intake and digestibility in ruminants using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS): Developing a global calibration. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2009;148:138– 156.
Fikadu D, Bediye S, Kehaliw A, Daba T, Kitaw G, Assefa G. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for determination of chemical entities of natural pasture from Ethiopia. Agr. Biol. J. N. Am. 2010b;1:919-922.
Alomar D, Fuchslocher R, Cuevas J, Mardones R, Cuevas E. Prediction of the composition of fresh pastures by Near Infrared reflectance or interactance-reflectance Spectroscopy. Chilean J. Agric. Res. 2009;69:198-206.
Castro P. Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for forage analysis. Lowland and Grasslands of Europe: Utilization and Development. FAO Corporate Document Repository. 200;282.
Khandaker ZH, Khaleduzzaman ABM. Nutritional evaluation of Jambo forage using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and comparison with wet chemistry analysis. Bangladish. Journal of Animal. Science. 2011;40(1-2):46-50.
Baloyi JJ, Hamudikuwanda H, Berardo N, Ordoardi M, Ngongoni NT. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) prediction of herbage quality from forage and browse legumes, and natural pasture grass grown in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(10):868- 871.
Stubbs Tamil L, Kennedy Ann C, Fortuna Ann-Marrie. Using NIRS to predict fiber and nutrient contents of dryland cereal cultivars. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry; 2009.
Saeys W, Mouazen AM, Ramon H. Potential for onsite and online analysis of pig manure using visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Biosystems Eng. 2005;91:393-402.
Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRA CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2019.
Ramalho Ribeiro JMC, Portugal Melo IM. Composition and nutritive value of chickpea. Opt. Médit., Série Séminaires. 1990;9:107–111.
Abreu JMF, Bruno-Soares AM. Characterization and utilization of rice, legume and rape straws. In: Antongiovanni M. (ed.). Exploitation of Mediterranean Roughage and by-Products. Zaragoza: CIHEAM. 1998;39 -51.
Lardy G Anderson. Alternative feeds for ruminants. NDSU extension service North Dakota State University Fargo, North Dakota. 2009;58108.
Bediye S, Sileshi Z, Fekadu D. Chemical composition and nutritive values of Ethiopian feeds. Research report 73. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research; 2007.
Kafilzadeh F, Maleki E. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and gas production of straws from different varieties and accessions of chickpea. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2011;96(2012)111–118.
Aghajanzadeh-Golshani A, Maheri-Sis N, Baradaran-Hasanzadeh A, Asadi-Dizaji A, Mirzaei-Aghsaghali A, Dolgari-Sharaf J. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) straw using nylon bag technique in sheep. Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran; 2012.
Naser Maheri-Sis, Abolfazle Aghajandeh-Golshani, Hosein Cheraghi Yahya Ebrahimnezhad, Jamshid Ghiasi Ghalehkandi, Abolfazl Asaadi-Dizaji. Dry Matter Degradation Kinetic and Metabolizable Energy of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Straw in Ruminants. Department of Animal Science, Shabestar branch,Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2011;6(12):635-638.
Seyoum Bediye, Zinash Sileshi. The composition of Ethiopian feedstuffs. Institute of agricultural research (IAR) report. IAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1989;6:34.
Hadjipanayiotou M, Economides S, Koumas A, Chemical composition, digestibility and energy content of leguminous grains and straws grown in a Mediterranean region. Ann. Zootech. 1985;34:23–30.
Nie Z, Tremblay GF, Belanger G, Berthiaume R, Castonguay Y, Bertrand A, et al. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy prediction of neutral detergentsoluble carbohydrates in timothy and alfalfa. J. Dairy Sci. 2009a;92:1702–1711.