Full Article - PDF

Published: 2021-10-29

Page: 1157-1164


Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Ayatollah Boroujerdi, Boroujerd, Iran.


Department of Mathematics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


In this paper, estimation of velocity, maximum velocity, dynamic pressure of snow avalanche release and Run-out zone distance over mountain regions are studied. To investigate of mathematical model, we have been taken gravitational, turbulent and friction forces with momentum equation. Computation of flow parameters such as velocity (both in start to track zone and from track to run out zone), maximum velocity (in track zone) and dynamic pressure and estimation of run out distance have been calculated. The flow parameters have been computed for its variation with slope angle, frictional coefficient, eddy viscosity, and different flow heights.

Keywords: Avalanche velocity, dynamic pressure, run-out distance, snow avalanche

How to Cite

ZARRINI, M., & PRALHAD, R. N. (2021). MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF AN AVALANCHE RELEASE AND ESTIMATION OF FLOW PARAMETERS. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 4(1), 1157–1164. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Atwater MM, Kozoil FC. Avalanche Handbook, USDA forest service; 1952.

Saller R, et al. Snow avalanche mass-balance calculation and simulation-model verification, Annals of Glaciology. 2008;48.

Bader H, Kuroiwa D. The physics and mechanics of snow as a material. CRREL monograph, part II, section B; 1962.

Zarrini M, Pralhad RN. Estimation of vapor velocity, vapor density and vapor temperature in a snow pack and its application in avalanche forecasting, Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2012;55(19):4965-4969.

Zarrini M. Mathematical modeling of snow drifts transport by wind over the mountain terrain, Journal of Hyperstructures. 2013; 2(2):201–206.

Blagovechshenskiy V, Eglit M, Naaim M. The calibration of an avalanche mathematical model using field data, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 2002;2:217–220.

Mellor M. Engineering properties of snow. Journal of Glaciology; 1977.

Colbeck SC. Thermodynamics of snow metamorphism due to variations in curvature, Journal of Glaciology; 1980.

Yosida Z. Physical properties of snow, Ice and snow Properties, Processes, and Applications, The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, W.D. Kingery, editor; 1963.

Bartelt P, Salm B, Gruber U. Calculating dense-snow avalanche run-out using a Voellmy-fluid model with active/passive longitudinal straining. Journal of Glaciology. 1999;45(150):242–254.

McClung DM. Derivation of Voellmy’s maximum speed and run-out estimates from a center-of-mass model, Journal of Glaciology. 1983;29(102).

Perla RI, Cheng TT, McClung DM. A two-parameter model of snow-avalanche motion. Journal of Glaciology. 1980;26(94):197–207.

Salm B. On non-uniform , steady flow of avalanching snow. IASH Publisher. 1986;79:161–188.

Schweizer J. Review of dry snow slab avalanche release. Cold Region Science and Technology. 1999;30: 43–57.

Voellmy A. On the destructive force of avalanches. Alta avalanche study Center, Transl. 1966;2:63.

White FM. Fluid mechanics, Mc-Graw-Hill; 2003.