DEVELOPING NATURE-BASED TOURISM IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA THROUGH STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

PDF

Published: 2022-11-29

Page: 1178-1192


OSUAGWU, CHIKEZIE *

University of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences (UAES), Umuagwo, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Rural communities in Imo state, Nigeria have for centuries preserved monkey habitats via traditional conservation practices (TCP). Research has barely addressed recuring human wildlife conflicts (HWC) and challenges faced by communities who derive no economic or social benefits from their monkeys. This study was aimed at investigating how nature-based tourism (NBT) development implemented though stakeholder engagement could aid biodiversity conservation. Adopting a qualitative method, in-depth interviews (n=25) were conducted with key informants in Lagwa and Ejemekwuru and stakeholders outside the communities. Data was triangulated by observing human-monkey interactions in the locales and monkeys in habitats. Findings reveal that HWC persist due to reducing forest cover and residences/habitats proximity. Locals are uneasy but have no motivation to protect monkeys and habitats, so the TCP is waning. Identified stakeholders are enthusiastic, possess capacity to adopt and would support NBT development. Optimism was high that NBT would stem HWC, empower communities, provide income and help conservation. Processes for stakeholders to achieve conservation through NBT development are recommended. Clear and shared goals, consistent with community aspirations can be achieved by pursuit of conservation education in communities, improvement, reforestation and delineation of habitats. Concessions is recommended to multidisciplinary consortiums with proven technical and financial capabilities. This study could enhance policy and knowledge, while the recommendations would assist service providers, and initiate positive change in the investigated subject fields.

Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, human-wildlife conflicts, nature-based tourism, stakeholder engagement, multidisciplinary tourism concessions


How to Cite

CHIKEZIE, O. (2022). DEVELOPING NATURE-BASED TOURISM IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA THROUGH STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 5(1), 1178–1192. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/3227

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Jemaah HM, Ending EA, Ikiba BA. Impact of the indigenous conservation of sclater’s guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri, Pocock) in Lagwa community, Nigeria. J Agric For Soc Sci (JOAFSS). 2011;9(2).

Baker LR. Links between local folklore and the conservation of Sclater’s monkey (Cercopithecus sclateri) in Nigeria. Afr Primates. 2013;8:17-24.

Rawat US, Agarwal NK. Biodiversity: concept, threats and conservation [journal]. Env Cons Jr. 2015;16(3):19-28.

DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2015.16303

Wheatley BP, Harya Putra DK. The effects of tourism on conservation at the monkey forest in Ubud, Bali. Rev Ecol Terre Vie. 1994;49(3):245-57. ffhal-03528997f.

DOI: 10.3406/revec.1994.2475

Holland KK, Larson LR, Powell RB, Holland WH, Allen L, Nabaala M, et al. Impacts of tourism on support for conservation, local livelihoods, and community resilience around Maasai mara National Reserve, Kenya. J Sustain Tourism. 2022;30(11):2526-48.

DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2021.1932927

Baah-Mintah R, Owusu-Adjei E, Hiamey SE. Tourism as a driver of rural socio-economic development: the case of Boabeng-Fiema monkey sanctuary. Tourism Manag Research. 2022;9(1):30-42.

DOI: 10.18488/31.v9i1.2973

Okorie PU, Ekechukwu K. Tragedy of the commons: stress and survival of the Lagwa (Nigeria) monkeys. Int J Sci Environ Technol. 2013;2(6).

Baker LR, Tanimola AA, Olubode OS, Garshelis DL. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, Southern Nigeria. Am J Primatol. 2009;71(7):574-86.

DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20690, PMID 19408287.

Ijeomah HM, Eniang EA, Ikiba BI. Impact of the indigenous conservation of Sclater’s guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri, Pocock) in Lagwa community, Nigeria, A journal of agriculture, forestry and the social. Sciences (JOAFSS). 2011;9(2).

Edet DI, Akinyemi AF, Mbagwu CI. Evaluation of human-monkey conflict in Lagwa villages of Aboh-mbaise Local Government area, Imo State, Nigeria. Niger J For. 2017;46(2):51-8.

Baker LR, Tanimola AA, Olubode OS. Complexities of local cultural protection in conservation: the case of an Endangered African primate and forest groves protected by social taboos. Oryx. 2018;52(2):262-70.

DOI: 10.1017/S0030605317001223

Sobere NU, Ihua-Madunenyi AB. The impact of human population on biodiversity conservation in Nigeria: the need for legal intervention. J Law Policy Global. 2019; 92(156).

Bennett NJ, Dearden P. Why local people do not support conservation: community perceptions of marine protected area livelihood impacts, governance and management in Thailand. Mar Policy. 2014; 44:107-16.

DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.08.017

Sarkar S. What should ”biodiversity” be? In: Casetta E, Marques da Silva J, Vecchi D, editors. From assessing to conserving biodiversity. History, philosophy and theory of the life sciences. Cham: Springer; 2019; 24:375-99.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-10991-2_18

Critical Ecosystem Partnership. Fund. Protecting nature’s hotspots for people and prosperity a joint initiative of conservation international, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan, the MacArthur Foundation, and the World Bank [annual report]; 2005.

National Geographic Society. Conservation; 2019.

Available:https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/conservation/

Abukari H, Mwalyosi RB. Local communities’ perceptions about the impact of protected areas on livelihoods and community development. Glob Ecol Conserv. 2020;22.

DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00909

Baker LR, Tanimola AA, Olubode OS. Sacred populations of Cercopithecus sclateri: Analysis of apparent population increases from census counts. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(4): 303-12.

DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22234, PMID 24282131.

Omokhua GE, Ofodile EAU. Some important medicinal plants in Rivers State: Crucial need for conservation. In: Jemaah HM, Aiyeloja AA, editors. Practical issues in forest and wildlife resources management green canopy consultants. Nigeria: Port Harcourt. 2010;8-191.

Olaleru F, Ogunfuwa AA, Omoregie QO. An assessment of human-monkey conflict in urban communities in Lagos State, Nigeria Unilag journal of medicine, science and technology (UJMST) (CEBCEM special edition). 2020;8(1).

Raji K. Challenges facing policies against deforestation in Nigeria; 2022.

Available:https://earth.org/challenges-facing-policies-against-deforestation-in-nigeria/

Wildlife Conservation Society. We Stand for Wildlife; 2021.

[Cited Oct 3 2022].

Available:https://nigeria.wcs.org/

Baker LR, Olubode OS. Correlates with the distribution and abundance of endangered Sclater’s monkey (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria. Afr J Ecol. 2008;46(3): 365-73.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00849.x

Okorie PU, Okeke SE, Ekechukwu K. Preliminary report on a new population of Sclater? s Guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in Nekede, Nigeria. 3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development Valencia Conference Centre, Valencia, Spain, J Ecosys Ecograph. 2014;4:3.

Osuagwu C. Development of nature-based tourism with monkey habitats in Imo State, Nigeria, Conference paper. presented at the 7th Conference of the Nigeria Tropical Biology Association (NTBA); 2022.

Drew JA, Henne AP. Conservation biology and traditional ecological knowledge: integrating academic disciplines for better conservation practice. Ecol Soc. 2006;11(2).

DOI: 10.5751/ES-01959-110234

Morais DB, Birendra KC, Mao Y, Mosimane A. Wildlife conservation through tourism microentrepreneurship among Namibian communities. Tourism Rev Int. 2015;19(1): 43-61.

DOI: 10.3727/154427215X14338796190477

Buckley R. Conservation tourism. Annu Rev Environ Resour. 2011;2011:36(1).

Statista. Market size of the tourism sector worldwide from 2011 to 2021, with a forecast for 2022; 2022.

Available:https://www.statista.com/statistics/1220218/tourism-industry-market-size-global/

Manzoor F, Wei L, Asif M, Haq MZ, Rehman H. The contribution of sustainable tourism to economic growth and employment in Pakistan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16(19):3785.

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193785, PMID 31597376.

Fennell DA. Ecotourism. 4th ed. Routledge; 2014.

DOI: 10.4324/9780203382110

Anup KC. Ecotourism and its role in sustainable development of Nepal, tourism – from empirical research towards practical application, Leszek Butowski. IntechOpen; 2016.

Available:https://www.intechopen.com/books/tourism-from-empirical-research-towards-practicalapplication/ecotourism-and-its-role-in-sustainable-development-of-nepal

Chapman C, Bicca-Marques JC, Dunham A, Fan Peng-Fei, Fashing. Primates Can Be a Rallying Symbol to Promote Tropical Forest Restoration. Folia Primatologica. 2020;91:1-19.

Available:10.1159/000505951

Amare A. Wildlife resources of Ethiopia: Opportunities, challenges and future directions: from ecotourism perspective: A review paper. Nat Resour. 2015;06(6):405-22.

DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.66039

Nielsen H, Spenceley A. The success of tourism in Rwanda – gorillas and more, World Bank; 2011.

Sandbrook C, Adams WM, Büscher B, Vira B. Social research and ¨ biodiversity conservation. Conserv Biol. 2013;27(6):1487-90.

DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12141, PMID 24033825.

Bennett NJ, Roth R, Klain SC, Chan KMA, Clark DA, Cullman G, et al. Conservation biology: the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology. 2016;31.

Agyekum AK, Fugar FDK, Agyekum K, Akomea-Frimpong I, Pittri H. Barrier to stakeholder engagement in sustainable procurement of public works. Eng Constr Archit Manag [ahead-of-print]; 2022.

DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2021-0746

Kshettry A, Vaidyanathan S, Sukumar R, Athreya V. Looking beyond protected areas: Identifying conservation compatible landscapes in agro-forest mosaics in northeastern India. Glob Ecol Conserv. 2020;22.

DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00905

Annan K. CEPA Toolkit: how to engage stakeholders and mainstream biodiversity; 2008.

Available:https://www.cbd.int/cepa/toolkit/2008/doc/CBD-Toolkit-Section3.pdf

Katikiro RE, Kweka OL, Minja R, Namkesa F, Ponte S. Stakeholder engagement and conservation outcomes in marine protected areas: lessons from Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) in Tanzania. Ocean & Coastal Management. 2021;202.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105502

Redpath SM, Young J, Evely A, Adams WM, Sutherland WJ, Whitehouse A, et al. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends Ecol Evol. 2013;28(2): 100-9.

DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.021, PMID 23040462.

Haddaway NR, Kohl C, Rebelo da Silva N, Schiemann J, Spök A, Stewart R, et al. A framework for stakeholder engagement during systematic reviews and maps in environmental management. Environ Evid. 2017;6(1).

DOI: 10.1186/s13750-017-0089-8

Medeiros de Araujo L, Bramwell B. Stakeholder assessment and collaborative tourism planning: the case of Brazil’s costa dourada project. J Sustain Tourism; 2009.

Bice S, Neely K, Einfeld C. Next generation engagement: setting a research agenda for community engagement in Australia’s infrastructure sector. Aust J Publ Admin. 2019; 78.

DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12381

Boiral O, Heras-Saizarbitoria I. Managing biodiversity through stakeholder involvement: why, who, and for what initiatives? J Bus Ethics. 2017;140(3):403-21.

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-015-2668-3

Solomonsz J, Melbourne-Thomas J, Constable A, Trebilco R, van Putten I, Goldsworthy L. Stakeholder engagement in decision making and pathways of influence for Southern Ocean ecosystem services. Front Mar Sci. 2021;8.

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.623733

Boyle E, Gallachóir BO, Mullally G. Participatory network mapping of an emergent social network for a regional transition to a low-carbon and just society on the Dingle Peninsula, Local Environment; 2021.

Freeman R. Stakeholder management: a strategic approach. New York: Pitman; 1984.

Barney J. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. J Manag. 1991; 17(1):99-120.

DOI: 10.1177/014920639101700108

Alonso AD. Exploring a developing tourism industry: A resource-based view approach. Tourism Recreat Res. 2017; 42(1).

Anyanwu UG, Osuji EE, Nwaiwu IUO, Tim-Ashama AC, Ibekwe CC, Osuala MO, et al. Effects of demographic factors on population dynamics in Imo State; implications for farm labor availability and supply. Agric Food Sci Res. 2022;9(1).

IUCN. Ecosystem profile Guinean forests of West Africa Biodiversity Hotspot. Report by International Union for Conservation of Nature; 2015.

Brinkman S, Kvale S. Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; 2015.

Guion LA, Diehl DC, McDonald D. Triangulation: Establishing the validity of qualitative studies. EDIS. 2011;2011(8):3.

DOI: 10.32473/edis-fy394-2011

Creswell JW, Poth CN. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. 4th ed. SAGE; 2018.

Adenle AA, Stevens C, Bridgewater P. Global conservation and management of biodiversity in developing countries: an opportunity for a new approach. Environ Sci Policy. 2015;45:104-8.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2014.10.002

Saunders M, Lewis P, Thornhill A. Research methods for business students. 6th ed. Pearson Education Limited; 2012.

Dworkin SL. Sample size policy for qualitative studies using in-depth interviews. Arch Sex Behav. 2012;41(6):1319-20.

DOI: 10.1007/s10508-012-0016-6, PMID 22968493.

Roberts RE. Qualitative interview questions: guidance for novice researchers. Qual Rep. 2020;25(9).

DOI: 10.46743/2160-3715/2020.4640

Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2): 77-101.

DOI: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Lovei M. Africa can Benefit from Nature-based Tourism in a Sustainable Manner WorldBank blog post; 2017.

[cited Oct 04, 2022].

Available:https://blogs.worldbank.org/nasikiliza/africa-can-benefit-from-nature-based-tourism-in-a-sustainable-manner

Lo YC, Janta P. Resident’s perspective on developing community-based tourism- A qualitative study of Muen Ngoen Kong community, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Front Psychol. 2020;11:1493.

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01493, PMID 32848976.

Cárdenas DA, Byrd ET, Duffy LN. An exploratory study of community awareness of impacts and agreement to sustainable tourism development principles. Tourism Hosp Res. 2015;15(4):254-66.

DOI: 10.1177/1467358415580359