Exploring the Potential Use of Orangepeel Powder to Obtain Arabic Bread with High Nutritional Characteristics

Full Article - PDF

Published: 2023-01-05

Page: 1-8

Noura Jamal *

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

Ramez Mohammad

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

Mahmoud Alio

Department of Agricultural Economy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The orange peels that are resulting from the orange juice factories are considered a promising by-product in the field of the food industry. Arabic bread is a staple food in many Asian countries, and incorporation of the by- product food industry, like orange peel powder (OPP), definitely improves its health benefits. This work optimized a formulation based on wheat flour and OPP with technical feasibility. So, Arabic bread prepared from blends with different levels (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%) of OPP evaluated for rheological properties, as well as sensory and chemical properties. The addition of OPP resulted in significant changes in wheat dough alveograph parameters, as evidenced by the increase in values of (P/L), whereas the reductions in (W) values. Measurements by Mixolab apparatus showed that water absorption capacity and dough development time increased as the amount of OPP increased (from 54.7% to 62.3% and from 1.45 min to 4.42 min), whereas dough stability showed a reverse trend (decrease from 8.58 min to 7.23 min). On the other hand, retrogradation characteristics improved when adding a low content of the powder. At another level, the chemical composition of Arabic bread values showed a higher percentage of moisture, ash, crude fiber, lipids, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity with increasing the level of OPP, but protein and carbohydrate contents decreased with increasing OPP concentration. Overall, the 2.5% OPP addition rate gained acceptance when conducting the sensory evaluation.

Keywords: Orange peels, Arabic bread, chemical composition, rheological properties, sensory evaluation

How to Cite

Jamal, N., Mohammad, R., & Alio, M. (2023). Exploring the Potential Use of Orangepeel Powder to Obtain Arabic Bread with High Nutritional Characteristics. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 1–8. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/3344


Download data is not yet available.


Annual agricultural statistical. Ministry of Agriculture & agrarian reform. Damascus: Syrian Arab Republic; 2020.

Khaled H, Oqlaa B, Mohamed A. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in major orange varieties grown in Syria. Damascus Univ Agric Sci J. 2013;29:153-64. (Abstract in English).

Castro LA, D, Lizi JM, Chagas EGL, Carvalho RA, Vanin FM. From orange juice by-product in the food industry to a functional ingredient. Application in the circular economy foods. 2020;9:593.

DOI: 10.3390/foods9050593

Genovese S, Fiorito S, Locatelli M, Carlucci G, Epifano F. Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014;69(3):255- 60.

DOI: 10.1007/s11130-014-0427-8, PMID 24928688.

Kırbaşlar FG, Kırbaşlar Sİ. Composition of cold-pressed bitter orange peel oil from Turkey. J Essent Oil Res. 2009;15:6-9.

Romero-Lopez MR, Osorio-Diaz P, Bello- Perez LA, Tovar J, Bernardino-Nicanor A. Fiber concentrate from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) bagase: characterization and application as bakery product ingredient. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(4):2174-86.

DOI: 10.3390/ijms12042174, PMID 21731434.

Ocen D, Xu X. Effect of citrus orange (Citrus sinensis) by-product dietary fiber preparations on the quality characteristics of frozen dough bread. Am J Food Technol. 2012;8(1):43-53. DOI: 10.3923/ajft.2013.43.53

Crizel TdM, Rios Ado, Thys RCS, Flôres SH. Effects of orange by-product fiber incorporation on the functional and technological properties of pasta. Food Sci Technol, Campinas. 2015;35(3):546-51.

DOI: 10.1590/1678-457X.6719

Dai YJ, Hei X, Deng LM, Ren YR, Gao QE, Luo H, et al. Effect of flavedo powder on the bread baking quality and poly phenols antioxidant activity. Food Ferment Ind. 2018;44(4):154-8.

Han L, Zhang J, Cao X. Effects of orange peel powder on rheological properties of wheat dough and bread aging. Food Sci Nutr. 2021;9(2):1061-9.

DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.2080, PMID 33598189.

Abdel Wahab A, Abou Elyazeed AM, Abdalla AE. Bioactive compounds in some citrus peels as affected by drying processes and quality evaluation of cakes supplemented with citrus peels powder. J Adv Agric Res (Fac Agric Saba Basha). 2018;23(1):44-67.

Ahmed A, Allawi SS, Hassan KS. The effect of local and Egyptian orange peel extract on some microscopic districts causing food damage and its role in extending the duration of the storage of Iraqi bread. Iraqi J Agric Sci. 2010;41(3):106-16. (Abstract in English).

Satoof M. Baking and pastry technology. Theoretical section. Publications. 2005;201.

AACC International. Methods. In: American Association of Cereal Chemists, editor. AACC International approved methods of analysis. St. Paul, MN: International Press; 2000.

AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. In Herlich K, editor. Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Washington, DC; 2005.

Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299:152-78.

DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1

Oyaizu M. Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Jpn J Nutr. 1986;44:307-15.

AACC International. Methods. American Association of Cereal Chemists international report. A new AACC international approved method to measure rheological properties of a dough sample. 2010;55:3.

Alfin F, Çakmakli Ü. A comparative study on the milling and flour characteristics of bread and durum wheats from Syria and Turkey. PhysiolD in Food Engineering. 2000;172.

Rosell CM, Collar C, Haros M. Assessment of hydrocolloid effects on the Thermos- mechanical properties of wheat using Mixolab. Food Hydrocol. 2007;21(3):452-62.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2006.05.004

Sudhakar DV, Maini SB. Isolation and characterization of mango peel pectins. J Food Process Preserv. 2000;24(3): 209-27.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2000.tb00414.x

Miller RA. Increased yield of bread containing citrus peel fiber. Cereal Chem. 2011;88(2):174- 8.

DOI: 10.1094/CCHEM-11-10-0161

Quiles A, Campbell GM, Struck S, Rohm H, Hernando I. Fiber from fruit pomace: A review of applications in cereal-based products. Food Rev Int. 2018;34(2):162-81.

DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2016.1261299

Okpala LC, Akpu MN. Effect of orange peel flour on the quality characteristics of bread. Br J Appl Sci Technol. 2014; 4(5):823-30.

DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/6610