Developmental Effects of Bisphenol a and Its Anologs Bisphenol S, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol Af on Sea Urchins Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck 1816) and Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus 1758)

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Published: 2023-02-02

Page: 56-70

Özlem Çakal Arslan *

Department of Marine and Inlan Waters Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

Muhammet Ali Karaaslan

Department of Marine and Inlan Waters Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

Beyza Nalbantlar

Department of Marine and Inlan Waters Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Restricting the use of BPA cause environmental concentrations of bisphenol S, bisphenol F, and bisphenol AF to increase. Because no data is available about the possible toxic effects of BPA analogues on sea urchin embryos, this study aims to investigate the developmental effects of bisphenol and its analogues on sea urchin embryos by embryotoxicity bioassay with two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula. The sea urchin bioassay may be performed on embryosand eggs, in well-standardized laboratory conditions. The embryos may be exposed to test agents throughout larval development, 72hrs. The exposure of eggs before fertilization may provide additional information on the ability of a chemical to induce teratogenic damage. Multispecies might be used in the tests because of the dissimilarity in susceptibility of different species to different contaminants. P. lividus and A. lixula embryos have been recognized as valuable tools in toxicological studies . In ecotoxicological studies, P. lividus have been more widely used than A. lixula A. lixula has not been widely used for toxicity testing, although in most of the studies P. lividus has been used. No comparative study has been carried out to reveal the differences in sensitivities between the two species to the pollutants. The EC50 (Effective Concentration 50) for 72 hours was determined at 1.396 mg-BPA/L for sea urchin A. lixula and 0.676 mg-BPA/L (EC50) was estimated BPA in P. lividus. The EC50 values for BPS, BPF, and BPAF for A. lixula were determined to be 2,673mg of BPS/L, 1,129 mg of BPF/L, and 0,314 mg of BPAF/L respectively. It can be concluded that these chemicals adversely affect the embryonic developmental stages of of P. lividus and A. lixula, which is of great ecological importance due to the hazard at the population level. In this way, the result of this study present the nominal effective concentrations of BPA and its analogues and the suitability of the species for use as a biomarker in ecotoxicology tests. In conclusion, the sea urchin model may usefully contribute to the identification and characterization of harmful animals. The advantages in using this test system should therefore prompt its extensive use in the biological monitoring of pollutants.

Keywords: Bisphenol A, Bisphenol analogs, Paracentrotus lividus, Arbacia lixula, toxicity

How to Cite

Arslan, Özlem Çakal, Karaaslan, M. A., & Nalbantlar, B. (2023). Developmental Effects of Bisphenol a and Its Anologs Bisphenol S, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol Af on Sea Urchins Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck 1816) and Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus 1758). Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 56–70. Retrieved from


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