Determinants of Irregular Migration to South Africa and Its Consequences: The Case of Duna Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia

PDF

Published: 2023-02-03

Page: 71-82


Abebe Markos *

Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, Wachemo University, Hossana, Ethiopia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Migration has expanded globally in recent years. In developing nations like Ethiopia, irregular migration accounts for the great majority of migration. Accordingly, the purpose of this research was to pinpoint the factors that contribute to unauthorized migration to the Republic of South Africa and the impact that migration has on the local community and migrants in Duna woreda, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data from 227 sampled houses were gathered utilizing systematic and simple random sampling to fulfill the study's purpose. Using econometrics and descriptive statistics, the acquired data was analyzed. Binary Logistic model was used as an economic study model to determine the causes of irregular migration. According to the study's findings, migrant households with returning members made up 57.84% of the respondents in the overall sample. According to the Econometric result, 8 out of the 10 explanatory variables were found to be significant in predicting irregular migration. These characteristics include the head of the household's age, educational attainment, size, sex, means of subsistence, push and pull forces, and employment status. The household's place of residence and marital status were unimportant factors in determining irregular migration. According to the study's findings, young adult males between the ages of 15 and 29 make up the majority of irregular migration. The study's findings showed that the main push factor for irregular migration is unemployment, whereas the main draw factor is the availability of jobs in RSA. The Econometric  result showed  that out of 10 explanatory variables, 8 variables were found to be significant in determining irregular migration. This includes age of household head, education level of household head; size of household head, sex of household head, livelihood of household, push factors ,pull factor and employment status household head. Residence place of household and marital status of household variables were insignificant in determining irregular migration. The result of the study indicated that irregular migration is dominated by young adult male aged 15-29. The result of study indicated that unemployment is the main push factors and pull factors for irregular migrations were job opportunity in RSA.          

Keywords: Irregular migration, push factors, pull factors, Republic of South Africa, Ethiopia, returnees


How to Cite

Markos, A. (2023). Determinants of Irregular Migration to South Africa and Its Consequences: The Case of Duna Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 71–82. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/3368

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Brief AE. Taking Africa’s irregular migrants into account: Trends, challenges and policy options. African Development Bank; 2014.

Browne E. Drivers of irregular migration in North Africa. GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1271; 2015.

Buehn A, Eichler S. Determinants of illegal Mexican immigration into the US southern border states. Eastern Economic Journal. 2013;39(4):464-492.

Dinbabo MF, Nyasulu T. Macroeconomic immigration determinants: an analysis of ‘Pull’factors of International migration to South Africa; 2015.

Düvell F. Irregular immigration, economics and politics. CESifo DICE Report. 2011;9(3):60-67.

Barasa N, Fernandez L. Kenya’s implementation of the Smuggling Protocol in response to the irregular movement of migrants from Ethiopia and Somalia. Law, Democracy & Development. 2015;19(1):29-64.

Bilgili Ö, Kuschminder K, Siegel M. Return migrants’ perceptions of living conditions in Ethiopia: A gendered analysis. Migration Studies. 2017;6(3):345-366.

Bloch A, Chimienti M. Irregular migration in a globalizing world. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 2011;34(8):1271-1285.

Bloch A, Chimienti M. Irregular migration in a globalizing world. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 2011;34(8):1271-1285.

Abdu S. The socio-economic and demographic characteristics of Ethiopian Emigrants to the Middle East: Through five selected private employment agencies. Unpublished M.Sc Thesis, Addis Ababa University: Addis Ababa; 2009.

Abire BG, Sagar GY. The determinant factors of illegal migration to South Africa and its impacts on the society in case of Gombora district, Hadiya Zone in Ethiopia: A Bayesian Approach. IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM). 2016;12(3):51-65.

Addis E. International migration in Ethiopia: Challenges and opportunities. International Migration and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa. 2014;111.

Admasu S. Determinants of migration South Africa using count regression model: The case of Soro and Misha Districts in SNNPR (Doctoral dissertation, Addis Ababa University); 2018.

Carter B, Rohwerder B. Rapid fragility and migration assessment for Ethiopia. Rapid Literature Review. 2016;2:1-47.

Messay M, South Africa: the Dream Land, Addis Admass Magazine, Admass Advertising, Addis Ababa, November 22 - March 10. 2005;8.

Zewdu GA. Ethiopian female domestic labour migration to the Middle East: patterns, trends, and drivers. African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. 2018);11(1):6-19.

Estifanos YS. Social networks, dreams and risks: Ethiopian irregular migrants into South Africa; 2017.

Girum S. Life costing migration to South Africa, Addis Admass Magazine. August 13, 2010;10(552):8.

Glossary IOM. International migration law: Glossary on migration. International Organization for Migration; 2004.

Habte Haile, Socio-economic impacts of migration of Ethiopians to the South Africa and its implications for Ethio-South Africa Relations; 2015

Haile H. Socio economic impacts of migration of Ethiopians to the South Africa and its implications for Ethio Rsa Relations: The Case of Kembata Tembaro and Hadiya Zones (Doctoral dissertation, Addis Ababa University); 2015.

Kanko TD, Baile A, Teller CH. Irregular migration; 2013.

Kurekova L. Theories of migration: Conceptual review and empirical testing in the context of the EU East-West flows. Paper prepared for Interdisciplinary conference on Migration. Economic Change, Social Challenge. 6–9 April 2011, University College London, London, UK; 2011.

Kurekova L. Theories of migration: Conceptual review and empirical testing in the context of the EU East-West flows. In Interdisciplinary Conference on Migration. Economic Change, Social Challenge. 2011, April;6-9.

The Global Slavery Index, Dalkeith, Western Australia, Walk Free Foundation; 2013.

Trafficking in Persons Overseas for Labor Purposes: The case of Ethiopian domestic workers, ILO CO, Addis Ababa. 2011;98.

Sprenger E. The determinants of international migration in the European Union: an empirical analysis (No. 325). IOS Working Papers; 2013.

Sprenger, E. IOS Working Papers.

Sonia Plaza, Dilip Ratha. Diaspora for Development in Africa, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (The World Bank):Washington, D.C; 2011.

Emerta Asminew et al. International Migration, Remittances and Poverty Alleviation in Ethiopia", Ethiopian Economics Association (EEA) / Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute (EEPRI):working paper series, No. 1 /2010, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Machecka S, Lunga W, Musarurwa C. Illegal migration by Zimbabweans into South Africa: is lack of documentation becoming a new humanitarian challenge. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies. 2015;6(3):250-256.

Marchand K, Reinold J, e Silva RD. Study on migration routes in the East and Horn of Africa; 2017.

Marchand K, Roosen I, Reinold J, Siegel M. Irregular migration from and in the East and Horn of Africa; 2017.

Martín I, Bonfanti S. Migration and asylum challenges in Eastern Africa: Mixed migration flows require dual policy approaches; 2015.

Morehouse C, Blomfield M. Irregular migration in Europe. Migration Policy Institute, Washington, DC; 2011.

Ratha D, Shaw W. South-South migration and remittances. The World Bank; 2007.

Teshome D. Kanko, Ajay Bailey, Charles H. Teller, Irregular migration: Causes and Consequences of Young Adult Migration from Southern Ethiopia to South Africa, 27th IUSSP International Population Conference, Busan, South Korea, 26 – 31, August; 2013.

Glossary of International Migration Law 2014, International Organization for Migration (IOM): Geneva, Retrieved on 24 October 2011.