Determination of Urogenital Schistosomiasis and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Selected Health Centers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

PDF

Published: 2023-05-04

Page: 223-231


Victor S. Njom *

Department of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B.-1660, Enugu, Nigeria.

Adaobi Chioma Obi

Department of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B.-1660, Enugu, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a debilitating diseases of the poor caused by parasitic blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma affecting women and children in the tropics and subtropics especially in sub-Saharan Africa. There is dearth of information on the prevalence of the disease among pregnant mothers in some localities in Ebonyi state. This study investigated the urinary schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among pregnant mothers in selected health centers in Ezza north of Ebonyi state.  A cross sectional survey was conducted on 250 pregnant women on antenatal clinic visits in five health centers in Ezza north of Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Urine microscopic was done for egg determination while demographic and associated risk factors were determined using a pretested questionnaire. The result showed an over all prevalence of 19.6%. Prevalence varied among communities, but more in Oshiegbe with 14 (22.58%) infections and least in Nkomoro (15.79%). The highest mean intensity of Schistosoma haematobium egg was found among expectant mothers within 15-20 years old and was highest in Oshiegbe Community while the least was found among pregnant mothers aged 36-40 years old in Ndufu Umuezekoha community.  Haematuria and proteinuria also varied from community to community. The highest hematuria prevalence was found among 15-20 years old. Proteinuria was highest among 31-35 years old.  Education, family size and marital status were associated with proportion of infection (p<0.05). There was also association between proportion of infection and occupation (p=0.0012). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis at 19.6% is relatively high among pregnant mothers. Treatment and regular surveillance are recommended.

Keywords: Prevalence, schistosomiasis, trematode, haematuria, genital, pregnancy


How to Cite

Njom , V. S., & Obi , A. C. (2023). Determination of Urogenital Schistosomiasis and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Selected Health Centers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 223–231. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/3472

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

WHO. Schistosomiasis fact sheet 115; April 17 2019.

Jamieson BG. Schistosoma: Biology, pathology and control. CRC Press; 2017.

Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2014;383(9936):2253-64.

Murenjekwa W, Makasi R, Ntozini R, Chasekwa B, Mutasa K, Moulton LH, et al. Determinants of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women and its association with pregnancy outcomes, neonatal deaths, and child growth. J Infect Dis. 2021;223(8):1433-44.

Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J, Kestens L. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2006; 368(9541):1106-18.

Udonsi JK. Human community ecology of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to snail vector bionomics in the Igwun River Basin of Nigeria. Trop Med Parasitol. 1990;41 (2):131-5.

Okafor FC, Ngang I. Freshwater Snails of Niger–cem, Nkalagu Eastern Nigeria, Observations on some Demographic aspects of the Schistosome-transmitting Bulinids. Anim Res Int. 2004;1(2):120-4.

Hailegebriel T, Nibret E, Munshea A. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in Snail Intermediate Hosts in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Trop Med. 2020;2020: 8850840.

Kincaid-Smith J, Tracey A, de Carvalho Augusto R, Bulla I, Holroyd N, Rognon A, et al. Morphological and genomic characterisation of the Schistosoma hybrid infecting humans in Europe reveals admixture between Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis. Plos Negl Trop Dis. 2021;15(12): e0010062.

Birley MH, WH. Organization, guidelines for forecasting the vector-borne disease implications of water resources development. World Health Organization; 1991.

Galappaththi-Arachchige HN, Amlie Hegertun IE, Holmen S, Qvigstad E, Kleppa E, Sebitloane M, et al. Association of urogenital symptoms with history of water contact in young women in areas endemic for S. haematobium. A cross-sectional study in rural South Africa. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13 (11):1135.

Hotez PJ, Asojo OA, Adesina AM. Nigeria: ”Ground Zero” for the high prevalence neglected tropical diseases. Public Library of Science; 2012.

Ezeh CO, Onyekwelu KC, Akinwale OP, Shan L, Wei H. Urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria: A 50 year review of prevalence, distribution and disease burden. Parasite. 2019;26:19.

Ojo JA, Adedokun SA, Akindele AA, Olorunfemi AB, Otutu OA, Ojurongbe TA, et al. Prevalence of urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in South-West Nigeria. Plos Negl Trop Dis. 2021;15(7):e0009628.

Ugbomoiko US, et al. Characterization of freshwater snail intermediate hosts of schistosomes in four communities from Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. One Health & Implementation Research. 2022; 2(2):88-95.

Mombo-Ngoma G, Honkpehedji J, Basra A, Mackanga JR, Zoleko RM, Zinsou J, et al. Urogenital schistosomiasis during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight delivery: Analysis of a prospective cohort of pregnant women and their offspring in Gabon. Int J Parasitol. 2017; 47(1):69-74.

Lacorcia M, Prazeres da Costa CU. Maternal schistosomiasis: Immunomodulatory effects with lasting impact on allergy and vaccine responses. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2960.

Tay SCK, Nani EA, Walana W. Parasitic infections and maternal anaemia among expectant mothers in the Dangme East District of Ghana. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10(1):3.

Salawu OT, Odaibo AB. Schistosomiasis among pregnant women in rural communities in Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;122(1):1-4.

Grimes JE, Croll D, Harrison WE, Utzinger J, Freeman MC, Templeton MR. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(12):e3296.

Afifi A, Ahmed AA, Sulieman Y, Pengsakul T. Epidemiology of schistosomiasis among villagers of the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan. Iran J Parasitol. 2016; 11(1):110-5.

Oyeyemi OT, de Jesus Jeremias W, Grenfell RFQ. Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: gleaning from the past to improve current efforts towards control. One Health. 2020;11:100183.

Ugbomoiko US, Ofoezie IE, Okoye IC, Heukelbach J. Factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in two peri-urban communities in south–western Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104(5): 409-19.