Metabolic and Immune Influences in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) in Response to Treatment with Emamectin Benzoate and its Nanoform


Published: 2023-07-31

Page: 347-365

Hassan S. H. Amin

Plant Protection Research Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, P.O. Box: 12611, Egypt.

Mohamed S. Salama

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo, P.O. Box: 11566, Egypt.

El-Gohary E. A. El-Gohary

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo, P.O. Box: 11566, Egypt.

Tarek A. A. El-Sheikh

Plant Protection Research Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, P.O. Box: 12611, Egypt.

Sara M. I. Abd El-Kareem *

Plant Protection Research Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, P.O. Box: 12611, Egypt.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Insecticide resistance and negative effects on natural ecosystems result from the careless use of synthetic pesticides for controlling the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Recent efforts to control this pest have used emamectin benzoate and other members of a new family of chemical insecticides with a confined mode of action and specific target ranges. Nanotechnology instruments are increasingly employed in agricultural operations because of their low-cost, minimal toxicity, and safe concentration. Through biochemical assessments of several enzymes associated with insecticide resistance and vitellogenin gene expression, the present research sought to comprehend the method of action of nano pesticides. The 4th instar larvae were treated with the LC50 of emamectin benzoate (EMB), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and the nanoform of emamectin benzoate (EMB+AgNPs) for 24 h. Larvae that survived treatment were collected to assay the influence of tested compounds on total body contents, detoxifying enzymes activity, and vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression. The findings showed that treatment with sublethal concentrations reduced the total body contents and adversely influenced the detoxifying enzymes. The results also demonstrated that Vg expression was down-regulated by EMB treatment while upregulated by AgNPs and EMB+AgNPs therapy. So, we can conclude that these substances have been shown to directly impact the body, including the enzymes responsible for detoxification. Nanopesticides represent a better substitute for synthetic insecticides for managing S. littoralis either directly through the killing effect or latent through the influence on detoxifying enzymes and gene expression.

Keywords: Spodoptera littoralis, nanopesticides, vitellogenin gene expression, detoxifying enzymes, metabolic response, immune response

How to Cite

Amin , H. S. H., Salama , M. S., El-Gohary , E.-G. E. A., El-Sheikh , T. A. A., & El-Kareem , S. M. I. A. (2023). Metabolic and Immune Influences in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) in Response to Treatment with Emamectin Benzoate and its Nanoform. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 347–365. Retrieved from


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