A Study of Physical Properties Related to the Technology of Manufacturing Double-layer Flatbread in Syria

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Published: 2023-08-30

Page: 437-451

Amin Moussa

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

Haider Khadour *

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Physical parameters play an important role in the technological process of manufacturing popular double layer flatbread  bread in Syria, and it was found that knowledge, professional experience, and adherence to them contribute mainly to shaping the physical characteristics of the resulting loaf. Given that these parameters are directly related to the method of executing the technological processes used during the process of making bread (mixing and kneading the ingredients, dividing and sheeting the dough, resting the sheeted dough to complete the final fermentation process, the conditions controlled within the baking chamber of a suitable temperature for baking, and the quality of heat distribution), the research objective was through a field study to shed light on the differences that appear in the process of manufacturing popular bread, and its impact on the physical properties of the resulting loaf. Thus, using parameters in a modeling process in order to obtain the most appropriate data, and employing them to obtain a loaf with good sensory characteristics.

It was found that the craftsmanship of the work of the crew executing the manufacturing process is reflected in the physical properties of the resulting loaf, and the abnormal variation in the values of these characteristics can be adopted as evidence of the inefficiency of implementing the technological processes in the bakery, and thus working to re-correct the implementation of these processes.

The relationships between the physical parameters (bread parameters such as the weight of the whole loaf (g), the weight of the upper section (g), the weight of the bottom section (g), the specific volume of the upper section, the specific volume of the bottom section, the specific volume of the upper sheet, the specific size of the bottom sheet and the specific volume of 100 g of dough) with the help of mathematical statistics, using regression analysis between bakery data through mathematical equations (at one end of the equation is an independent variable and at the other end a dependent variable), which take the linear, quadratic, cubic, exponential, power or logistic form, which It means that the dependent variable can be predicted by knowing the value of the independent variable with very little error.

The best mathematical equation that describes the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables adopted within the research was the power relationship of the form, and it is remarkable that it applied to the description of the results of all bakeries, and the adjusted coefficient of determination was very high, with more than 0.99 for all cases. Depending on the mathematical model represented by the equation, the output of the baking process can be set based on the choice of inputs with high reliability.

Keywords: Flatbread, specific volume, mathematical modeling, baking, dough kneading, dough sheeting, proofing

How to Cite

Moussa, A., & Khadour, H. (2023). A Study of Physical Properties Related to the Technology of Manufacturing Double-layer Flatbread in Syria. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 437–451. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/3619


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