Effect of Different Dietary Protein Levels on the Growth Performance and Biochemical Composition of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio Cultivated in Cement Ponds in Syria


Published: 2023-09-05

Page: 458-465

Mohammed Jallit *

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Syria.

Mohamad Hassan

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Syria and MARBEC, Université Montpellier, Ifremer, IRD, CNRS, 34200 Sète, France.

Mouina Badran

Department of Fisheries, High Institute of Marine Researches, Tishreen University, Syria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major commercial farmed species which has been cultivated widely in Syria. However, no previous studies focused on appropriate dietary protein levels for this fish species. The present study aimed at estimating the effect of different dietary protein levels on the growth performance and biochemical composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio cultured in cement ponds. Three experimental diets were formulated with different protein content, T1 (22.4%), T2 (29.9%) and T3 (36.3%). Nine cement ponds were prepared with three ponds for each treatment, in each of which fifty fingerlings were placed. Fingerlings of initial weight of (42.3±1.24) g for (T1), (41.5±1.22) g for (T2) and (42.5±0.4) for (T3), were fed twice a day for five months. Weight gain (WG), Food Conversation Ratio (FCR), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Specific Growth Ratio (SGR) and Survival Rate were assessed. Biochemical composition: protein, fat, ash and moisture contents of the experimental diets and of fish meat were also determined. Results showed that (T3) was the best diet with DWG of (2.64±0.15), WG of (396.35±15.07g) and a protein content in fish meat of (17.1±0.4%). Moreover, FCR value of (2.12±0.008) in (T3) compared to (2.21±0.03) and (2.95±0.1) recorded in (T2) and (T1) respectively.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio, dietary protein, growth performance, biochemical composition

How to Cite

Jallit , M., Hassan , M., & Badran , M. (2023). Effect of Different Dietary Protein Levels on the Growth Performance and Biochemical Composition of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio Cultivated in Cement Ponds in Syria. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 458–465. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/3631


Download data is not yet available.


Haque MM, Belton B, Alam MM, Ahmed AG, Alam MR. Reuse of fish pond sediments as fertilizer for fodder grass production in Bangladesh: Potential for sustainable intensification and improved nutrition. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 2016;216:226-236.

Tran N, Rodriguez UP, Chan CY, Phillips MJ, Mohan CV, Henriksson PJG, Koeshendrajana S, Suri S, Hall S. Indonesian aquaculture futures: An analysis of fish supply and demand in Indonesia to 2030 and role of aquaculture using the AsiaFish model. Marine Policy. 2017;79: 25-32.

FAO. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022. Towards Blue Transformation. Rome, FAO; 2022.

Beveridge MCM. Cage Aquaculture Fishing News Books, Oxford. 1996;352.

NRC. National Research Council: Nutrients requirements of fish and Shrimp. The National Academic Press, Washington, D.C. 2011;376:16.

Ali MZ, Jauncey K. Approaches to optimizing dietary protein to energy ratio for African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2005;11:95-101.

Jin Y, Tian LX, Xie SW, Guo DQ, Yang HJ, Liang GY, Liu YJ. Interactions between dietary protein levels, growth performance, feed utilization, gene expression and metabolic products in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture. 2015;437:75–83. [CrossRef].

Leu M, Liou C, Wang W, Yang S, Meng P. Natural spawning, early development, and first feeding of the semicircle angelfish [Pomacanthuss emicirculatus (Cuvier, 1831)] in captivity. Aquaculture Research. 2009;40(9):1019-1030.

Hossain SM, Barreto SL, Bertechini, AG, Rios AM, Silva CG. Influence of dietary Vitamin E level on egg production of broiler breeders, and the growth and immune response of progeny in comparison with the progeny from eggs injected with Vitamin E Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 1998; 1;73(3-4):307-317.

Alam MS, Watanabe WO, Carroll PM. Dietary protein requirements of juvenile Black Sea Bass Centropristis striata. J. World Aquac. Soc. 2008;39:656–663. [CrossRef].

Lovell T. Nutrition and Feeding of Fish. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1989;260.

Abdel-Hakim NF, Hussein MS, Bakeer MN, Soltan MA. Effect of protein level and stocking density on growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in tanks. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds. 2001;4:763-780.

NRC. National Research Council: Nutrients requirements of fish and Shrimp. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington D.C. 1993;114.

Buentello JA, Gatlin DM, Neill WH. Effects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen on daily feed consumption, feed utilization and growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture. 2009;182(3/4):339-352.

Craig S, Helfrich L. Understanding fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia. 2017;420-256.

Bureau of Fisheries and Fishery Management, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China. China Fisheries Statistical Yearbook; Chinese Agricultural Press: Beijing, China. 2021;25.

Barus V, Peaz M, Kohlmann K, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758). The freshwater fishes of Europe, Germany. 2001;85–179.

AOAC. Official Method of Analysis. 16th Edition, A1ssociation of Official Analytical, Washington DC; 2002.

Cristian O, Coroian VM, Daniel I, Cocan RD, Vâţu CM, Răducu AC. Growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings fed with various protein Levels. AACL Bioflux. 2015;8(6).


Wang S, Tian J, Jiang X, Li C, Ge Y, Hu X, Cheng L, Shi X, Shi L, Jia Z. Effects of different dietary protein levels on the growth performance, physicochemical indexes, quality, and molecular expression of yellow river carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus). Animals. 2023;13:1237.

Available:https:// doi.org/10.3390/ani13071237

Shahabuddin AM, Habib KA, Affan MA, Ahmed MR, Yasmin MS. Nutrition requirements of common carp (cyprinus carpio) cultured in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Prog. Sci. & Tech. 2007;5(2):417 -420.

Hasan MR. Nutrition and feeding for sustainable aquaculture development in the Third Millennium. Technical proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. Bnagkok, Thailand. 2001;20-25.

Mohapatra SB, Patra AK. Growth response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to different feed ingredients incorporate diets. Pelagia Research Library, Advances in Applied Science Research. 2014;5(1):169-173.

Wilson RP. Utilization of dietary carbohydrate by fish. Aquaculture. 1994; 124(1-4):67–80.

Naser A. Effect of replacement of fish meal by soybean on growth, survival, feed utilization and production cost of fingerlings common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the float cages. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2013;4(4):308-312.

AL-Bachry WS, Ibrahim AA, Al-Humairi KM. The effect of using three different levels of Fish Meal on growth criteria and feeding efficiency in Cyprinus carpio. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020;553.

Ahmed I, Maqbool A. Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth, feed utilization and haemato-biochemical parameters of freshwater fish, Cyprinus Carpio Var. Specularis. Fish Aqua J. 2017; 8:187.


Zmijewski T, Kujawa R, Jankowska B, Kwiatkowska A, Mamcarz A. Slaughter yield, proximate and fatty acid composition and sensory properties of rapfen (Aspius aspius L.) with tissue of bream (Abramis brama L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.). J. Food Comp. Anal. 2006;19:176-181.

Afkhami M, Amin M, Kazem DB, Reza K, Nasrin E, Maryam E. Survey of some chemical compositions and fatty acids in cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Noshahr, Iran. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 2011;3(6):533-538.


Ćirković M, Ljubojević D, Ţupan B, Bogut I, Ɖordjević V, Novakov N, Matekalo - Sverak, V. Comparative presentation of the meat quality of some types of fish from the carp family in the Republic of Serbia. Croatian Journal of Fisheries. 2012; 70(1):79-88.

Ćirković M, Trbović D, Ljubojević D. Meat quality of fish farmed in polyculture in carp ponds in Republic of Serbia. Meat Technology. 2011;52:106–121.

Marcu A, Ileana N, Nicula M, Marcu A, Kelciov B. Studies regarding the meat quality of the species Cyprinus carpio. Lucrari Stinifice Medicina Veterinara. 2010;XLIII(2).

Yeganeh S, Bahareh S, Hedayat H, Mohammad RI, Ali S. Comparison of farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Seasonal variations in chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Czech J. Food Sci. 2012;30(6):503–511.