Conversion of Waste Biomass into Valuable Platform Furan-Based-Compounds


Published: 2023-09-29

Page: 553-559

Abubakar M. Ali

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna-Nigeria.

Haruna Ibrahim *

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna-Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


In an effort to find a substitute for fossil resources, with a renewable source material, the valorization of agricultural residues is increasing biomass values as sustainable feedstocks. In the current investigation, the waste leaf of the Gmelina arborea plant was hydrothermally converted to biochemicals of economic importance. The hydrothermal process was carried out by reacting 50 g of pulverized leaves with 500 ml distilled water at 60oC using 0.5 g barium chloride catalyst. Two of the most valuable furan based-compounds (2-furan methanol and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural) were obtained at varying reaction times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes. The highest yield, 10.26%, of 2-furan methanol was obtained at 50 minutes of reaction time. Conversely, the highest yield of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, 26.39%, was obtained in a 10 minutes reaction period. This work successfully converted waste leaves of Gmelina arborea into twelve phytochemicals including 2-furanmethanol and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and the reaction time dictate the product yield. The process is safe, fast, and cost-effective, and production materials are harmless to both humans and the environment.

Keywords: Biomass, conversion, furan methanol, hydroxymethyl furfural, waste Gmelina arborea

How to Cite

Ali , A. M., & Ibrahim , H. (2023). Conversion of Waste Biomass into Valuable Platform Furan-Based-Compounds. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 6(1), 553–559. Retrieved from


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