A Systematic Review of Natural Products for the Alzheimer's Disease

PDF Review History

Published: 2024-04-18

Page: 141-150

Mopuri Jyothsna

Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, KR Palli Cross, Chiyyedu (Post), Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515721, India.

Akula Ruchitha Sai

Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, KR Palli Cross, Chiyyedu (Post), Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515721, India.

Aaravula Hemanth Babu

Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, KR Palli Cross, Chiyyedu (Post), Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515721, India.

Buddadasari Snehitha

Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, KR Palli Cross, Chiyyedu (Post), Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515721, India.

K Baktha Bandhavi

Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, KR Palli Cross, Chiyyedu (Post), Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515721, India.

K Somasekhar Reddy

Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, KR Palli Cross, Chiyyedu (Post), Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515721, India.

Bhupalam Pradeep Kumar *

Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, KR Palli Cross, Chiyyedu (Post), Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515721, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder marked by the accumulation of tau tangles and amyloid plaques, which results in cognitive decline. Natural substances and phytomedicines with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, and neuroprotective properties offer promising therapeutic modalities for AD. The investigation of these plant-based remedies is in line with the goal of developing safe, effective, multimodal, and culturally sensitive therapies that can be used to manage or cure a variety of illnesses while minimizing side effects and enhancing general health. The antioxidant effectiveness of these treatments is demonstrated by a number of patents, with the inhibition of tau hyperphosphorylation among the suggested mechanisms. In addition, a few natural extracts show promise in crossing the blood-brain barrier, and some have anti-inflammatory qualities as well.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment, health disorders, phytomedicines

How to Cite

Jyothsna , M., Sai , A. R., Babu, A. H., Snehitha, B., Bandhavi , K. B., Reddy , K. S., & Kumar , B. P. (2024). A Systematic Review of Natural Products for the Alzheimer’s Disease. Asian Journal of Advances in Research, 7(1), 141–150. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/AJOAIR/article/view/4032


Download data is not yet available.


Zvěřová M. Clinical aspects of Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Biochemistry. 2019;72:3-6.

Gouras GK, Olsson TT, Hansson O. β-Amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12:3-11.

Yiannopoulou KG, Papageorgiou SG. Current and future treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 2013; 6(1):19-33.

Klafki H-W, Staufenbiel M, Kornhuber J, Wiltfang J. Therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2006;129(11): 2840-55.

Diener E, Chan MY. Happy people live longer: Subjective well‐being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being. 2011;3(1):1-43.

Iqbal K, Liu F, Gong C-X. Alzheimer disease therapeutics: focus on the disease and not just plaques and tangles. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2014;88(4): 631-9.

Rodda J, Carter J. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for symptomatic treatment of dementia. Bmj. 2012;344.

Kumar A, Singh A. A review on Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology and its management: An update. Pharmacological Reports. 2015;67(2):195-203.

Khan S, Barve KH, Kumar MS. Recent advancements in pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Current Neuropharmacology. 2020;18(11):1106-25.

Perl DP. Neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine: A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine: A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine. 2010;77(1):32-42.

Cai Z, Zhao B, Ratka A. Oxidative stress and β-amyloid protein in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuromolecular Medicine. 2011; 13:223-50.

Tiwari S, Atluri V, Kaushik A, Yndart A, Nair M. Alzheimer’s disease: Pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapeutics. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2019:5541-54.

Takahashi RH, Nagao T, Gouras GK. Plaque formation and the intraneuronal accumulation of β‐amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. Pathology International. 2017; 67(4):185-93.

Bi C, Bi S, Li B. Processing of mutant β-amyloid precursor protein and the clinicopathological features of familial Alzheimer’s disease. Aging and Disease. 2019;10(2):383.

Reddy PH. Abnormal tau, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport of mitochondria, and synaptic deprivation in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Research. 2011;1415:136-48.

Pini L, Pievani M, Bocchetta M, Altomare D, Bosco P, Cavedo E et al. Brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease and aging. Ageing Research Reviews. 2016;30:25-48.

Wegiel J, Wisniewski HM, Dziewiatkowski J, Badmajew E, Tarnawski M, Reisberg B et al. Cerebellar atrophy in Alzheimer's disease—Clinicopathological correlations. Brain Research. 1999;818(1):41-50.

Braak H, Braak E. Evolution of neuronal changes in the course of Alzheimer’s disease. Ageing and Dementia. 1998:127-40.

Inoue K, Tsutsui H, Akatsu H, Hashizume Y, Matsukawa N, Yamamoto T, Toyo'Oka T. Metabolic profiling of Alzheimer's disease brains. Scientific Reports. 2013; 3(1):2364.

Briggs R, Kennelly SP, O'Neill D. Drug treatments in Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical Medicine. 2016;16(3):247.

Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Webb AP, Morgan LC, Moore CG, Jonas DE. Efficacy and safety of donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2008;3(2):211-25.

Rodda J, Morgan S, Walker Z. Are cholinesterase inhibitors effective in the management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer's disease? A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine. International Psychogeriatrics. 2009;21(5): 813-24.

Kulkarni J, Thomas N, Hudaib A-R, Gavrilidis E, Grigg J, Tan R, et al. Effect of the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist memantine as adjunctive treatment in borderline personality disorder: An exploratory, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CNS Drugs. 2018; 32:179-87.

Olivares D, K Deshpande V, Shi Y, K Lahiri D, H Greig N, T Rogers J, Huang X. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and memantine treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research. 2012;9(6):746-58.

Choi D-Y, Lee Y-J, Hong JT, Lee H-J. Antioxidant properties of natural polyphenols and their therapeutic potentials for Alzheimer's disease. Brain Research Bulletin. 2012;87(2-3):144-53.

Chen X, Drew J, Berney W, Lei W. Neuroprotective natural products for Alzheimer’s disease. Cells. 2021;10(6): 1309.

Fan L, Mao C, Hu X, Zhang S, Yang Z, Hu Z et al. New insights into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Neurology. 2020;10:1312.

Gilgun-Sherki Y, Melamed E, Offen D. Antioxidant treatment in Alzheimer’s disease: Current state. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 2003;21:1-11.

Plascencia-Villa G, Perry G. Roles of oxidative stress in synaptic dysfunction and neuronal cell death in Alzheimer’s disease. Antioxidants. 2023;12(8):1628.

Zhang J, Zhou X, Yu Q, Yang L, Sun D, Zhou Y, Liu J. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-stabilized selenium nanoparticles coated with Tet-1 peptide to reduce amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2014; 6(11):8475-87.

Shimmyo Y, Kihara T, Akaike A, Niidome T, Sugimoto H. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and curcumin suppress amyloid beta-induced beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 upregulation. Neuroreport. 2008;19(13): 1329-33.

Iqbal K, Alonso AdC, Chen S, Chohan MO, El-Akkad E, Gong C-X et al. Tau pathology in Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease. 2005; 1739(2-3):198-210.

Singh SK, Srivastav S, Castellani RJ, Plascencia-Villa G, Perry G. Neuroprotective and antioxidant effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against AD and other neurological disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2019;16:666-74.

Smith J, Luo Y. Studies on molecular mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba extract. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 2004;64:465-72.

Andrade S, Ramalho MJ, Pereira MdC, Loureiro JA. Resveratrol brain delivery for neurological disorders prevention and treatment. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2018;9:1261.

Wang R, Tang XC. Neuroprotective effects of huperzine A: A natural cholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosignals. 2005;14(1-2):71-82.

Dumont M, Kipiani K, Yu F, Wille E, Katz M, Calingasan NY, et al. Coenzyme Q10 decreases amyloid pathology and improves behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2011;27(1):211-23.

Maiti P, Dunbar GL. Use of curcumin, a natural polyphenol for targeting molecular pathways in treating age-related neurodegenerative diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018;19(6): 1637.

Mattson MP. Apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 2000;1(2): 120-30.

Lakey-Beitia J, González Y, Doens D, Stephens DE, Santamaría R, Murillo E et al. Assessment of novel curcumin derivatives as potent inhibitors of inflammation and amyloid-β aggregation in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2017;60(s1):S59-S68.

Vishnoi H, Bodla RB, Kant R, Bodla R. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its antioxidant property: A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2018;9(5):1723-36.

Pasinetti GM, Wang J, Ho L, Zhao W, Dubner L. Roles of resveratrol and other grape-derived polyphenols in Alzheimer's disease prevention and treatment. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease. 2015;1852(6): 1202-8.

Zahiruddin S, Basist P, Parveen A, Parveen R, Khan W, Ahmad S. Ashwagandha in brain disorders: A review of recent developments. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020;257:112876.

Sukumaran NP, Amalraj A, Gopi S. Neuropharmacological and cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst–A review on its mechanistic aspects. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019;44:68-82.

Laye S, Nadjar A, Joffre C, Bazinet RP. Anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the brain: physiological mechanisms and relevance to pharmacology. Pharmacological Reviews. 2018;70(1):12-38.

Rameshrad M, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Saffron and its derivatives, crocin, crocetin and safranal: A patent review. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2018;28(2):147-65.

Nowak A, Kojder K, Zielonka-Brzezicka J, Wróbel J, Bosiacki M, Fabiańska M et al. The use of Ginkgo biloba L. as a neuroprotective agent in the Alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021; 12:775034.

Ghareeb DA, Khalil S, Hafez HS, Bajorath J, Ahmed HE, Sarhan E et al. Berberine reduces neurotoxicity related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;2015.

Tabassum N, Rasool S, Malik ZA, Ahmad F. Natural cognitive enhancers. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2012; 5(1):153-60.

Noori T, Dehpour AR, Sureda A, Sobarzo-Sanchez E, Shirooie S. Role of natural products for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2021;898:173974.

Ahmed S, Khan ST, Zargaham MK, Khan AU, Khan S, Hussain A et al. Potential therapeutic natural products against Alzheimer's disease with Reference of Acetylcholinesterase. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2021;139:111609.

Rajabian A, Sadeghnia H, Fanoudi S, Hosseini A. Genus boswellia as a new candidate for neurodegenerative disorders. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2020;23(3):277.

Geissler T, Brandt W, Porzel A, Schlenzig D, Kehlen A, Wessjohann L, Arnold N. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from the toadstool Cortinarius infractus. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 2010; 18(6):2173-7.

Sonibare MA, Ayoola IO, Elufioye TO. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of leaf extract and fractions of Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach) WF Wright. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 2017;28(2):143-8.

Ullah F, Ayaz M, Sadiq A, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Imran M, Zeb A. Phenolic, flavonoid contents, anticholinesterase and antioxidant evaluation of Iris germanica var; florentina. Natural Product Research. 2016;30(12):1440-4.

Saleem H, Ahmad I, Shahid MN, Gill MSA, Nadeem MF, Mahmood W, Rashid I. In vitro acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potentials of Jatropha gossypifolia plant extracts. Acta Pol Pharm. 2016;73(2):419-23.

García MV, Poser G, Apel M, Tlatilpa RC, Mendoza-Ruiz A, Villarreal ML et al. Anticholinesterase activity and identification of huperzine A in three Mexican lycopods: Huperzia cuernavacensis, Huperzia dichotoma and Huperzia linifolia (Lycopodiaceae). Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30(1):235- 9.

Zhao Y, Dou J, Wu T, Aisa HA. Investigating the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of Gossypium herbaceam. Molecules. 2013; 18(1):951-62.

Suganthy N, Pandian SK, Devi KP. Cholinesterase inhibitory effects of Rhizophora lamarckii, Avicennia officinalis, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Suaeda monica: mangroves inhabiting an Indian coastal area (Vellar Estuary). Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2009;24(3):702-7.

Pohl F, Kong Thoo Lin P. The potential use of plant natural products and plant extracts with antioxidant properties for the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials. Molecules. 2018;23(12):3283.

Simunkova M, Alwasel SH, Alhazza IM, Jomova K, Kollar V, Rusko M, Valko M. Management of oxidative stress and other pathologies in Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of Toxicology. 2019;93: 2491-513.