The bacterial polyesters may be considered as “Green Plastics”, because of their biodegradable nature. These polyesters can be employed for packaging and coating materials / as biodegradable carriers and applied in the biomedical field. Twelve bacterial isolates were isolated from the dairy industry effluent sample. Screening for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was done by Sudan black staining. PHB extraction was carried out by the chloroform digestion method. Biochemical and 16s rRNA analysis showed that PHB producing bacteria belong to Bacillus genera with Maximum production of PHB was analyzed by U.V spectrophotometer and finally it was characterized by FTIR, NMR, and GC MS.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the impacts of the two essential oils; Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) and Pinus brutia (Turpentine) against 1-3 days old eggs of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella; the toxicity and the adverse impact of these products on some biological and physical characters were studied under laboratory conditions at 25 ±1 °C and 65±5% R.H.
The obtained results revealed that the eggs of P. gossypiella pest were highly susceptible to Pinus than Syzyginum. The LC50 value were 9.38% ppm when PBW eggs treated with Turpentine oil, while it increased to 11.57% when 1-3 days old eggs of P. gossypiella dipping with Syzyginum. Some biological aspect studies show a prolongation in larval and pupal stages developments resulted from treated 1-3 day old eggs by S. aromaticum and P. brutia.It estimated by 9.0 and 20.0 days/ larvae, respectively for larvae and 9.3 and 10.2 days/ pupae. . The life cycle were significant affected, as it was elongated to 34.1 and 36.9, respectively, compared with 26.2 days in control.
In contrast, in adult stage, the results indicated that the percentage of adult emergence was highly decreased to 56.0 and 61.0% emerged from eggs treated with LC50 of Syzygium and Turpentine, respectively, compared with (94.00%) control, with high reduction in total eggs laid, percentage of hatchability. The average number of eggs deposited by females were 107 and 97 eggs laid at 11.1 and 7.6 days oviposition/ female, resulted from Syzygium and Turpentine, respectively compared with 226.0 eggs/ female in control deposited at 11.6 days.
The physical result indicated that latent adverse effect in biochemical larvae resulted from eggs treated with two essential oil Syzygium and Turpentine. It caused high decreased in total protein to 15.0 and 8.6 (total protein (mg/g.b.wt.), respectively compared with17.0 mg/g.b.wt. /larvae in control, with decreased the Phenoloxidase, to 14.8 and 13.5 (O.D. units/g.b.wt), respectively, compared with 26.0 Phenoloxidase (O.D. units/g.b.wt) in control. In contrast, increased in free-amino acid to 137.3 and 298.0 (µg D, L- alanine/g.b.wt) respectively, compared with 118.0 in control, also, the total lipid increased to 27.9 and 22.0 (mg/g.b.wt.), respectively, compared with16.9 (mg/g.b.wt.) in control.
Parameter estimation become complicated when censoring is present in the sample. Some time it is not possible to give a mathematical expression about estimated values of parameters in Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. In this situation iteration method is used, to find estimated values of parameters in numeric form . There are several Modified Maximum Likelihood (MML) estimation procedures which provide a mathematical expression about parametric value. For the two-parameter inverse Weibull distribution by using type II censored sample, assuming fixed shape parameter, a modified maximum likelihood estimator is proposed by  in which they use a simple approximation for intractable terms to estimate the scale parameter. In this paper a comparative study of the proposed estimator  is made with MML estimator of  ML estimators of .
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture (GGOM) on some haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chicken. A total of one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) of mixed sex were randomly divided into five treatments with three replicates consisting of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) were fed basal diet with 0 % GGOM while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were given GGOM at 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 %, and 0.4 % respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks; food and water were provided ad libitum and all other management were strictly observed. Data collected were used to evaluate some haematological and serum biochemical indices of animals. Haematological parameters cover pack cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and its differentials while serum analysis includes total protein (Tp), globulin, albumin, aspartate serum aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alanine phosphatase (ALP). All the haematological parameters were significantly (P ˂0.05) different among the treatment. Similarly, serum biochemical parameters were significantly (P ˂0.05) affected by GGOM. Increasing the level of GGOM from 0.1 % to 0.4 % tended to reduce ALP, AST, and ALT values. It was concluded that feeding birds at 0.4 % did not cause any negative effect on the health of the animals; the data revealed that all values were within the physiological reference range for broiler chicks.
In this note, we verify the existence of solutions to nonlocal initial value problems for Hilfer-type fractional hybrid differential equations with impulsive condition. Then, we use prerequisites of Hilfer fractional calculus and the standard fixed point theorem due to Dhage for deriving the existence results in the weighted space of continuous functions. An example is presented to illustrate the theory results.