The study was conducted to determine the temperature change on the growth of marine bacterial isolates of the genus Bacillus isolated from the coastal sediments of Lattakia city. Marine sediment samples were collected from the Apamea region during the period (2019-2020) the identity of these bacterial isolates was determined through laboratory and microbiological analyses. A number of experiments were conducted to find out the effect of temperature changes on the growth of these bacterial isolates. The results showed that the best growth of bacterial isolates was at an incubation temperature of 30°C.
Biodegradation by natural population of microorganisms represents one of the cheap primary mechanisms by which petroleum and other hydrocarbon pollutants can be removed from the environment. The effectiveness of Pseudomonasputida and Staphylococcusauerus in remediation of soil contaminated with spent engine oil was investigated using standard methods. The result indicates significant variation in bacteria count between spent engine oil contaminated soil and control soil in 3rd to 6th week of bioremediation (p˂0.05). pH of control soil was significantly (P˂0.05) different from bio-remediated soil in the 1st, 4th, 5th and 7th week of bioremediation. Percentage organic matter content of control soil also differed significantly from bio-remediated soil in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th week of the experiment while the organic matter content of both samples did not show any significant difference in the 4th and 5th week (P˂0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn in bio-remediated soil when compared with control soil (P˂0.05). Similarly total organic carbon in bio-remediated soil was not significantly different from the control soil (p=0.001). Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus aureus are effective in the clean-up of spent engine oil contaminated soil.
The annual mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) from 1960 to 2017 of Pakistan is the subject of this paper. As a reason, in South Asia, Pakistan contributed the most to childhood mortality, including infant mortality. Despite progress, child mortality has declined globally, but Pakistan is still struggling and far behind the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are several reasons for high childhood mortality, including socioeconomic determinants and lack of effective implementation of health-related policies, particularly in primary health care settings. In the present study, we use stochastic univariate models to uncover the trend of infant mortality by using more than half a century of data from 1960–2017. The secondary data related to the mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) from 1960 to 2017 was extracted from the World Bank Dataset. Descriptive and time series analysis (Box-Jenkins) are applied. The analysis is carried out using the R programming language.
Knowledge, attitude and practices of communities regarding buruli ulcer infection in parts of Imo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. A cross-sectional design involving interview with Household Heads in twenty villages and six focus group discussions were applied in 2018. Systematic sampling technique was adopted and a semi structured interviewer-administered questionnaire (validated and reliable) was the key instrument for data collection. The residents were physically examined for buruli ulcer disease and relationships with knowledge, attitude and practices were sought. The result of the reliability test showed that the instrument for data collection was highly reliable. In the study, respondents of age 56-65 years (14.0%) were more likely to think that buruli ulcer is not a health problem; instead it was as a consequence of the gods bewitching a person. Respondents with tertiary education qualification 124 (10.33%) were likely to regard buruli ulcer as a health-related challenge. Respondents who were traders 592 (49.33%) had the highest level of awareness. It was revealed that 96.67% knew about buruli ulcer, 5.83% of them knew it through the media and 9.35% knew it through Hospital Community Members. A total of 480 respondents (40%) attributed the disease to witchcraft, 10.83% perceived it was through insect bites and 23.75% believed it occurs due to lack of hygiene. Indigenous assessment showed that the disease has local names (out-ore; acha-ere) which reflect patterns of resistance and deterioration associated with the disease. Much negative behaviour about buruli ulcer was identified in the communities during the assessment. The findings of the study further showed that many individuals had knowledge about the disease but did not know how to manage the disease, particularly, their attitudes, practices and the way to manage the wound. The study also revealed that the women had difficulties accessing healthcare and therefore, the pains associated with wound management especially during routine-dressing was a serious challenge in the communities as patients were reluctant to visit hospitals for proper management due to overwhelming pains. The attitude and practice culminated in poor clinical management of the disease and invariably was responsible for the high prevalence rate of buruli ulcer in parts of Imo State, Nigeria. Community survey revealed that not much people knew about the mode of transmission and this deficiency limited adoption of preventive measures in the localities. Our study confirmed that buruli ulcer usually affects poor people in remote rural areas with limited access to health care. Our study also confirmed that most ulcers occur on the extremities; lesions on the lower extremities are almost twice as common as those on the upper extremities. Based on the outcome of this study, there should be capacity building and infrastructural facilities for handling of buruli ulcer emergency cases in Imo State, Nigeria. Quality health care facilities should be upgraded to adequately cope with buruli ulcer. Vigorous buruli ulcer sensitisation and awareness in communities, its implications, manifestations, signs and symptoms throughout Imo State, should be conducted. There is a need for more research to be carried out as mode of transmission of buruli ulcer diseases is still unknown. Buruli ulcer cases should be referred to qualified physicians to prevent wound severe infections and deterioration. There should be health education towards the misconceptions about the disease in the communities. Concerned authorities should be used in the treatment of buruli ulcer to avoid drug resistance by the wound-infecting microorganisms.
Micro/nanobubbles (MNBs) refer to structures that have a core separated from the periphery and is composed of gas. They are sized at the micro or nano level . The shell of an MNB distinguishes the external environment and the core that includes gases or drugs therein . These bubbles not only serve as transporters that deliver gases or drugs into the body but also act as contrast agents by contrasting vibration patterns of surrounding tissues with blood vessels by ultrasound. nanobubbles are less affected by changes in volume concentration than microbubbles . Cavitation, which is one of the characteristics of bubbles in an ultrasonic field, allows them to be used as an ultrasonic contrast medium. The Present Review Focus The various advantages of Nano Bubbles when utilised and Designed for Therapeutic Purposes.