MULTIVARIATE APPROACHES TO CLUB LARGE WATER QUALITY DATA FROM AQUATIC TOXICITY STUDIES: A REVIEW STUDY

RAJBIR KAUR

P.G. Department of Zoology, Khalsa College Amritsar, 143002, Punjab, India.

ANISH DUA

P.G. Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, 143005, Punjab, India.

SATINDER KAUR *

P.G. Department of Zoology, Khalsa College Amritsar, 143002, Punjab, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Water is the most valuable, widespread resource, major constituent of all living creatures and extremely essential for the sustenance & existence of life. This is exemplified by its multiple uses such as drinking, cooking, washing, irrigation, farming, industrial activities and many more. Quality of surface waters are getting deteriorated as water resources are polluted due to the discharge of industrial effluents, agricultural run-off having insecticides, pesticides, heavy metals, fertilizers, chemicals, sewage and other domestic wastes. This review strongly recommends the incorporation of regular monitoring programmes for reliable estimation of water quality, effective pollution control and water resource management. The practice of conducting physicochemical studies is even essential/mandatory before conducting any toxicity study using fishes or any other sentinel organism both for in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Frequent sampling at many sites with a lot of water quality parameters generates a large & complex data matrix that needs data interpretation. The use of different multivariate approaches provide a rapid solution by identifications of factors that are mainly influencing water quality, clustering many parameters to identify the parameters mainly responsible for spatial and temporal variations linked to seasonality. In this way, reliable management of water resources as well as rapid solutions to pollution problems and effective environmental impact assessment can be approached.

Keywords: Physicochemical analysis, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, multivariate statistical methods, water quality, aquatic toxicity


How to Cite

KAUR, R., DUA, A., & KAUR, S. (2022). MULTIVARIATE APPROACHES TO CLUB LARGE WATER QUALITY DATA FROM AQUATIC TOXICITY STUDIES: A REVIEW STUDY. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 43(24), 500–509. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i243352

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Melake BA, Nkuba B, Groffen T, De Boeck G, Bervoets L. Distribution of metals in water, sediment and fish tissue. Consequences for human health risks due to fish consumption in Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia. Sci. Total Environ. 2022;843:156968.

Stasiunaite P, Kazlauskiene N. Impact of municipal wastewater chemicals on the Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in its early development. Ekologija. 2002; 2: 58-64.

Chaplen FWR, Vissvesvaran G, Henry EC, Jovanovic GN. Improvement of bioactive compound classification through integration of orthogonal cell-based biosensing methods. Sensors. 2007;7:38-51.

Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol. Appl. 1998;8(3):559-568.

Chapman D. Water quality assessment: A guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring. 2nd edn., University Press, Cambridge, London. 1996;1-651.

Singh KP, Malik, A. and Sinha, S. Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources of Gomti river (India) using multivariate statistical techniques- a case study. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2005a ;538(1-2): 355-374.

Simeonov V, Einax JW, Stanimirova I, Kraft J. Environmetric modeling and interpretation of river water monitoring data. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2002;374(5): 898-905.

Simeonov V, Stratis JA, Samara C, Zachariadis G, Voutsa D, Anthemidis A, Sofoniou M, Kouimtzix T. Assessment of the surface water quality in Northern Greece. Water Res. 2003;37(17): 4119-4124.

Felipe-Sotelo M, Andrade JM, Carlosena A, Tauler R. Temporal characterisation of river waters in urban and semi-urban areas using physico-chemical parameters and chemometric methods. Anal. Chim. Acta 2007; 583:128- 137.

Kaur R, Dua A. Assessment of water quality of Tung Dhab Drain-An International water channel using multivariate statistical techniques. Asian J. Water, Environ. Pollut. 2016; 13: 85-93.

Begum A, HariKrishna S, Khan I. Analysis of heavy metals in water, sediments and fish samples of Madivala Lakes of Bangalore, Karnataka. Int. J. Chemtech Res. 2009; 1(2): 245-249.

Yerel S, Ankara H. Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the assessment of water quality in Sakarya River, Turkey. J. Geo.l Soc. India. 2012; 79: 89-93.

Evans AEV, Hanjra MA, Jiang Y, Qadir M, Drechsel P. Water quality: assessment of the current situation in Asia. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 2012; 28(2):195-216.

Ndome CB, Mowang DA, Ayibaemi TT. Comparative acute toxicity of local detergents (Omo and Ariel) on fingerlings of the Clarias gariepinus♀ x Heterobranchus longifilis♂ hybrid. Aquac. Aquar. Conserv. Legis. Intl. J. of the Bioflux Society. 2013;6(4): 415-420.

Tambekar P, Morey PP, Batra RJ, Weginwar RG. Physico-chemical parameter evaluation of water quality around Chandrapur District Maharastra, India. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2013; 5(5):27-36.

Adebisi SA, Fayemiwo KA. Physiochemical properties of industrial effluents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Elec. J. Env. Agricult. Food Chem. 2011;10(3):2026-2031

Chaurasia NK, Tiwari RK. Effect of industrial effluents and wastes on physico-chemical parameters of river Rapti. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2011;2(5):207-211.

Yadav RK, Sharma S, Saint Y, Khan TI, Sharma S. Study on pollution of Amanishah Nallah by effluents of local textile industries in Sanganer, Jalpur (Rajasthan). Asian J. Chem. Environ. Res. 2011; 4(1): 2-6.

Zhang Y, Guo F, Meng W, Wang XQ. Water quality assessment and source identification of Daliao river basin using multivariate statistical methods. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2009; 152: 105-121.

Yang YH, Zhou F, Guo HC, Sheng H, Liu H, Dao X, He CJ. Analysis of spatial and temporal water pollution patterns in Lake Dianchi using multivariate statistical methods. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2010; 170(1-4): 407-416.

Zhao Y, Xia XH, Yang ZF, Wang F. Assessment of water quality in Baiyangdian Lake using multivariate statistical techniques. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2012;13:1213-1226.

Wang Y, Wang P, Bai Y, Tian Z, Li J, Shao X, Mustavich LF, Li BL. Assessment of surface water quality via multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Songhua River Harbin region, China. J. Hydro-Environ. Res.2013;7(1):30-40.

Trivedi RK, Goel PK. Chemical and Biological Methods for Water Pollution Studies. India: Environmental Publications; 1984.

American Public Health Association. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st (Ed.). New York: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association & Water Environment Federation; 2012.

Benka-Coker MO, Ojior OO. Effect of slaughterhouse wastes on the water quality of Ikpoba River, Nigeria. Bioresour. Technol. 1995;52: 5-12.

Kumari SB, Kirubavathy AK, Thirumalnesan R. Suitability and water quality criteria of an open drainage municipal sewage water at Coimbatore, used for irrigation. J. Environ. Biol. 2006; 27(4): 709-712.

Asia IO, Akporhonor EE. Characterization and physicochemical treatment of wastewater from rubber processing factory. Int. J. Phys. Sci. 2007;2(3): 61-67.

Ranganathan K, Jeyapaul S, Sharma DC. Assessment of water pollution in different bleaching based paper manufacturing and textile dyeing industries in India. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2007;134: 363-372.

Akan JC. Physicochemical determination of pollutants in wastewater and vegetable samples along the Jakara Wastewater Channelin Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. Eur. J. Sci. Res. 2008;23(1):122-133.

Kumar AY, Reddy MV. Assessment of seasonal effects of municipal sewage pollution on the water quality of an urban canal-a case study of the Buckingham canal at Kalpakkam (India): NO3, PO4, SO4, BOD, COD and DO. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2009;157(1-4): 223-234.

Palma P, Alvarenga P, Palma VL, Fernandes RM, Soares AM, Barbosa IR. Assessment of anthropogenic sources of water pollution using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study of the Alqueva’s reservoir, Portugal. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2010;165(1-4): 539-552.

Razmkhah H, Abrishamchi A, Torkian A. Evaluation of spatial and temporal variation in water quality by pattern recognition techniques: a case study on Jairood River (Tehran, Iran). J. Environ. Manage. 2010; 91(4): 852-860

Fadeyibi A, Halilu A, Osunde ZD. Analysis of physicochemical properties of abattoir wastewater for irrigation in Minna, Niger state. Continental J. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2011; 2(2): 12-15.

Ibeh IN, Omoruyi MI. Seasonal dynamics in the physicochemical parameters of hospital effluent from a university teaching hospital based in Southern Nigeria. Glob. Environ. Res. 2011; 5(1): 8-14.

Kolhe AS, Pawar VP. Physico-chemical analysis of effluents from dairy industry. Recent Res. Sci. Technol. 2011;3(5):29-32.

Kushwah RK, Bajpai A, Malik S. Wastewater quality studies of influent and effluent water at municipal wastewater treatment plant, Bhopal (India). Int. J. Chem. Environ. Pharm. Res. 2011;2(2-3): 131-134.

Prasad A, Rao KVB. Physico chemical analysis of textile effluent and decolorization of textile azo dye by Bacillus Endophyticus strain VITABR13. IIOAB J. 2011;2(2):55-62.

Salem IB, Ouardani I, Hassine M, Aouni M. (2011). Bacteriological and physico-chemical assessment of wastewater in different region of Tunisia: impact on human health. BMC Res. Notes. 2011;4:144-155.

Sharma D, Dubey A. Assessment and treatment of municipal wastewater of Indore city of India. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 2011;3(1):450-461.

Najar IA, Khan AB. Assessment of water quality and identification of pollution sources of three lakes in Kashmir, India, using multivariate analysis. Environ. Earth Sci. 2012;66:2367-2378.

Chhikara S, Rana L, Poonam. Physico-chemical characterization of textile mill effluent: a case study of Haryana, India. Environment and We-IJST. 2013;8:19-23.

Qu JQ, Zhang QJ, Liu P, Jia CX, Yang M. Assessment of water quality using multivariate statistical methods: A case study of urban landscape water, Beijing. Int. J. Biosci. Biochem. Bioinforma. 2013; 3(3):196-200.

Shivsharan VS, Wani M, Khetmalas MB. Characterization of dairy effluents by physicochemical parameters. Br. Biotechnol. J. 2013;3(4):575-580.

Bhat SA, Meraj G, Yaseen S, Bhat AR, Pandit AK. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on spatio-temporal variation of water quality in Anchar Lake, Kashmir Himalayas. Int. J. Environ. Sci. 2014; 3(5):1625-1640.

Mehta J, Yadav A, Dilbaghi N, Sharma P. Physico-chemical characterization of distillery effluent and COD reduction by using Bacillus badius and Lysinibacillus fusiformis. Int. J. Recent Trends Sci. Technol. 2014; 1(3): 340-346.

Bakar NA, Othman N, Yunus ZM, Zawawi Daud Z, Norisman NS, Hisham MH. Physico-chemical water quality parameters analysis on textile. IOP Conference Series: EES 2020;498:1-8. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/498/1/012077

Rahman A, Jahanara I, Jolly YN. Assessment of physicochemical properties of water and their seasonal variation in an urban river in Bangladesh. Water Sci. Eng. 2021;14(2):139-148.

Goswami AP, Kalamdhad AS. Water quality variation and source apportionment using multivariate statistical analysis. Environ. Forensics; 2022. DOI: 10.1080/15275 92 2.2022.2125112

Kaur N, Brraich OS. Impact of industrial effluents on physico-chemical parameters of water and fatty acid profile of fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), collected from the Ramsar sites of Punjab, India. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022;29:11534-11552.

Rakib MRJ, Jolly YN, Begum BA, Choudhury TR, Fatema KJ, Islam MS, Idris AM. Assessment of trace element toxicity in surface water of a fish breeding river in Bangladesh: a novel approach for ecological and health risk evaluation. Toxin rev. 2022;41:420-436.

Sharma P, Iqbal HM, Chandra R. Evaluation of pollution parameters and toxic elements in wastewater of pulp and paper industries in India: A case study. CSCEE 2022;5:100163.

Roy M, Shamim M, Chatterjee S. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Biological Parameters on the Water Quality of Shilabati River, West Bengal, India, Water Sci. 2021;35:71-81.

Sharma R, Kumar R, Satapathy SC, Al-Ansari N, Singh KK, Mahapatra, RP, Pham BT. Analysis of water pollution using different physicochemical parameters: A study of Yamuna River. Front. Environ. Sci. 2020;8:581591.

Tyagi S, Dubey RC, Bhutiani R, Ahamad, F. Multivariate Statistical analysis of river Ganga at Rishikesh and Haridwar, India. Anal. Chem. Lett. 2020;10:195-213.

Paul S, Mandal A, Bhattacharjee P, Chakraborty S, Paul R, Mukhopadhyay BK. Evaluation of water quality and toxicity after exposure of lead nitrate in fresh water fish, major source of water pollution. Egypt. J. Aquat. Res. 2019;45:345-351.

Siraj S, Yousuf AR, Bhat FA, Parveen M. The ecology of macrozoobenthos in Shallabugh wetland of Kashmir Himalaya, India. J. Ecol. Nat. Environ. 2010;2(5):84-91.

Palharya JP, Malviya S. Pollution of the Narmada River at Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh and suggested measures for control. In: Trivedy RK. (ed). Ecology and pollution of Indian rivers. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi. 1988;54-85.

Khuhawar MY, Mirza MA, Leghari SM, Arain R. Limnological study of Baghsar lake district Bhimber Azad Kashmir. Pak. J. Bot. 2009; 41(4):1903-1915.

Singh KP, Mohan D, Singh VK, Malik A. Studies on distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in Gomti river sediments-a tributary of the Ganges, India. J Hydrol. 2005b;312(1-4):14-27.

Akpan AW. The water quality of some tropical fresh water bodies in Uyo (Nigeria) receiving municipal sewage effluents, slaughter house washings and agricultural land drainage. The Environmentalist. 2004; 24: 49-55.

Das J, Acharya BC. Hydrology and assessment of lotic water quality in Cuttack city, India. Wat. Air and Soil Poll. 2003;150:163-175.

Srivastava N, Harit G, Srivastava R. A study of physicochemical characteristics of lakes around Jaipur, India. J. Environ. Biol. 2009;30(5): 889-894.

Joshi DM, Bhandari NS, Kumar A, Agrawal N. Statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters of water of river Ganga in Haridwar district. Rasayan J. Chem. 2009;2(3):579- 587.

Panda UC, Sundaray SK, Rath P, Nayak BB, Bhatta D. Application of factor and cluster analysis for characterization of river and estuarine water systems-A case study: Mahanadi River (India). J. Hydrol. 2006;331(3-4):434-445.

Shrestha S, Kazama F. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Fuji river basin, Japan. Environ. Model. Softw. 2007;22:464-475.