Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Aqueous Extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) from Indonesia

Lynda Sabrina Ounaceur *

Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba, Algeria.

Mabrouka Bouacha

Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba, Algeria.

Oumaima Taguida

Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba, Algeria.

Nesrine Djaber

Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba, Algeria.

Mahfoud Messarah

Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba, Algeria.

Amel Boumendjel

Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba, Algeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is an aromatic herb that originates mainly from Central Asia and Africa. This herb has been used in many ways, especially in the medical field. Given its many therapeutic benefits, it would be interesting to identify the different phytochemicals of this plant. The primary objective of this work is to measure the various phenolic compounds in the aqueous extract of the plant and to identify them, using the HPLC technique. The study of the antioxidant activity in vitro of this extract as well as its antimicrobial activity have been carefully carried out. According to the results of the phytochemical analysis, this plant contained, more or less, significant amounts of phenolic compounds such as total phenols (176.02 mg), flavonoids (23.5 mg) and ortho-diphenols (740,14 mg). Moreover, some phenolic compounds, in particular flavonols, were present in smaller amounts, (2.09 x 10-3 mg). The presence of certain compounds was then confirmed by the HPLC technique. The results of the study of the antioxidant activity of clove extract (DPPH, ABTS and β-carotene test), showed values that ​​were high. As for the antibacterial activity tests, they showed remarkably high inhibition zones and sensitivity (diameter 18mm and 15mm diameter) for the Gram negative bacteria : Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia Coli. As regards for the gram-positive strain which is Staphylococcus aureus, it had a high sensitivity and an inhibition diameter of (19 mm).

Keywords: Syzygium aromaticum, phytochemical screening, HPLC, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities

How to Cite

Ounaceur , L. S., Bouacha , M., Taguida , O., Djaber , N., Messarah , M., & Boumendjel , A. (2023). Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Aqueous Extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) from Indonesia. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(21), 178–191.


Download data is not yet available.


Mitaal M, Gupta N, Parashar P, Mehra V, Khatri M. Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological activity of Syzygium Aromaticum: A comprehensive review. Int J Pharm Sci. 2014;6(8):67-72.

Haro-González JN, Castillo-Herrera GA, Martínez-Velázquez M,Espinosa-Andrews H. Clove Essential Oil (Syzygium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): Extraction, Chemical Composition, Food Applications, and Essential Bioactivity for Human Health. Molecules. 2021;26:6387.

Pan C, Dong Z. Antiashtmatic effect of eugenol in a mouse of allergic asthma by regulation of vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1/NF-kB pathway. Inflammation. 2015;38(4):1385-1393.

Cortés-Rojas D, Fernandes de Souza C R, Pereira Oliveira W. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum); a precious spice. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014;4(2):90-96.

Kim HM, Lee EH, Hong SH, Song HJ, Shin MK, Kim SH, Shin TY. Effect of Syzygium Aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1997;60:125-131.

Abo-El Maati F A, Mahgoub S A, Labib S M, Al-Gaby A M A, Ramdan M F. Phenolic extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) with novel antioxidant and antibacterial activities. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2016’8(4):494-504.

El-Saber Batiha G, Alkazmi LM, Wasef LG, Beshbishy AM, Nadwa E, Rashwan EG. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae): Traditional Uses, Bioactive Chemical Constituents, Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities. Biomolecules. 2020;10:202.

Haji Abd Rahim Z, Begum Said Gulam Khan H. Comparative studies on the effect of crude aqueous (CA) and solvent (CM) extracts of clove on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Oral Science. 2006;48(3):117-123.

Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr S J, Shahabimajd N. Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of some selected Iranian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(11): 1142-1145.

Zemmouri H, Ammar S, Boumendjel A, Messarah M, El Feki A, Bouaziz M. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Borago officinalis L. leaf extract growing in Algeria. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2014;1-10.

Slama K, Boumendjel M, Taibi F, Boumendjel A. Messarah M. Atriplex halimus aqueous extract abrogates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity by modulating biochemical and histological changes in rats. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2018;1-12.

Yermakov A I, Arasimov V V, Yarosh N P. Methods of biochemical analysis of plants; 1987.

Mateos R, Espartero J L, Trujillo M, Rios J J, Leon-Camacho M, Alcudia F, Cert A. Determination of Phenols, Flavones, and Lignans in Virgin OliveOils by Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Ultraviolet Detection. J Agric. Food Chemistry. 2001;49(5):2185-2192.

Rouibah Z, Ben Mansour A, Rekik O, Boumendjel M, Taibi F, Bouaziz M, et al. Chemical composition, antioxidant activities, in an allergic asthma model, of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts from Collo (Skikda, Algeria). Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2019;1-12.

Julkunen-Tiitto R. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of north¬ern willows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J Agricult Food Chem. 1985;33:213–217.

Binsan W, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Roytrakul S, Tanaka M, Kishimura H. Antioxidative activity of Mungoong, an extract paste, from the cephalothorax of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Food Chem. 2008;106(1):185–193.

Sekiou O, Boumendjel M, Taibi F, Tichati L, Boumendjel A, Messarah M. Nephroprotective effect of Artemisia herba alba aqueous extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 2020;1-9.

Pratt D E. Natural antioxidants of soybean and other oil-seeds. In M.G. Simic and M.Karel (Eds.), Autoxidation in food and biological system. New York: Plenum Press. 1980;283-292.

Kulisic T, Radonic A, Katalinic V, Milos M. Use of different methods for testing antioxidative activity of oregano essential oil. Food Chem. 2004;85(4):633–640.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggenete A, Pannala A, Yang M et Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation the colorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medecine. 1999; 26:1231-1237.

Rouag M, Berrouague S, Djaber N, Khaldi T, Boumendjel M, Taibi F, et al. Pumpkin seed oil alleviates oxidative stress and liver damage induced by sodium nitrate in adult rats: biochemical and histological approach. African Health Sciences. 2020; 20:413-425.

Rahal K. Standardisation de l’Antibiogramme en Médecine Humaine à l’Échelle Nationale selon les recommandations de l’OMS, 5ème édition, éd Ministère de la Santé, de la Population et de la Réforme Hospitalière, Algérie. 2008;58.

Vitali LA, Beghelli D, Biapa Nya PC. Diverse biological effects of the essential oil from Iranian Trachyspermum ammi. Arabian J Chem. 2016;9(6):775-786.

Bouhaddouda N, Aouadi S, Labiod R. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. glandulosum (Desf.) Ietswaart from Algeria. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2015;8(1):104-112.

Nassan MA, Mohamed EH, Abdelhafez S, Ismail TA. Effect of clove and cinnamon extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats: Immunopathological and antimicrobial study, International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 2015;28(1)60–68.

Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK. Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chem 2001;73:285– 290.

Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. JAgric Food Chem. 2005; 53(20):7749-7759.

Ghedira K, Goetz P, Le Jeune R. Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae) Giroflier. Phytothérapie. 2010 ;8(1):37-43.

Kim JH, Seo CS, Kim SS, Ha H. Simultaneous determination of gallic acid, ellagi, and eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and verification of chemical antagonistic effect by the combination with Curcuma aromatic using regression analysis. Journal of analytical methods in chemistry. 2013;2013:1-7.

Anita D, Avtar S, Ritu M. Antioxidants of clove (Syzygium Aromaticum) prevent metal induced oxidative damage of biomolecules. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2015’6(4):273- 278.

Ghedadba N, Bousselsela L, Hambaba L, Benbia S, Mouloud Y. Évaluation de l’activité antioxydante et antimicrobienne des feuilles et des sommités fleuries de Marrubium vulgare L. Phtotérapie. 2014; 12(1):15-24.

Gülçin I, Elmastaş M, Aboul-Enein HY. Antioxidant activity of clove oil A powerful antioxidant source. Arab J Chem. 2012; 5(4):489-499.

Jameel Kiki M. In Vitro Antiviral Potential, Antioxidant, and Chemical Composition of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Essential Oil. Molecules. 2023;28:2421.

Sofia P, K. Prasad R, VijayVK, Srivastava AK. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Indian spices against common food borne pathogens. Int. J Food Sci. Technol. 2007;42(8):910-915.

Faraja D, Gonelimali, Jiheng Lin, Wenhua Miao, Jinghu Xuan, Fedrick Charles, Meiling Chen, Shaimaa R Hatab. Antimicrobial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Some Plant Extracts against Food Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms, Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018;24(9):1639 .

Mesaros N, Nordmann P, Plésiat P, Roussel-Delvallez M, Van Eldere J, Glupczynski Y, et al. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Résistance et Options Thérapeutiques à L’aube du deuxième Millénaire, Antibiotiques. 2007;126(8):305-316.

Sethi S., Aparna D, B. Lal G, Saksham G. Antimicrobial activity of spices against isolated food borne pathogens. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;5:260–262.