Comparative Spectral Analysis of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, Jellyfish and Seawater from Aegean Sea, Evia, Greece


Published: 2023-12-22

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i243818

Page: 119-133

Ignat Ignatov *

Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Teodora P. Popova

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Forestry, 10 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756, Bulgaria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Research was conducted using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral spectroscopy method on octopus, jellyfish, and seawater from the Aegean Sea, Chalkida, Evia Island, Greece. Our analyses of two peaks at 896 and 933 cm-1 indicate their presence in the octopus. These peaks are expressed in Martian minerals and meteorites. The results suggest that the octopus is adaptable to conditions on another planet. Our data provide a basis for speculating that it is an organism from Mars or another planet with similar characteristics. However, the spectral characteristics of the jellyfish and seawater do not correspond to the spectral characteristics of Martian minerals and meteorites. Studies have been conducted also on the microbial flora on the skin of octopus of the species Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, captured in the Aegean Sea near Chalkida, Greece, on the island of Euboea (Evia). The aim was to assess their role as carriers of pathogenic microorganisms. Bacteria from the families Micrococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated, as well as Aeromonas hydrophilia ssp. hydrophilia, Enterococcus caseiflavus, and Candida lusitaniae. Staphylococci prevail, with the highest quantity being Staphylococcus simulans (107.67 + 10.21 CFU cm-2 on the head and 67.33 + 6.02 CFUcm-2 on the tentacles), followed by Staphylococcus piscifermentans (14.33+1.69 CFU cm-2 on the head and 37.33+1.25 CFU cm-2 on the tentacles) and Staphylococcus hyicus (3.67+1.25 CFU cm-2 on the head and 14.67 + 3.39 CFU cm-2 on the tentacles). Among the Gram-negative bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophilia ssp. hydrophilia piscifermentans predominated, found only on the head of octopuses at 9.67+2.05 CFU cm-2, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae, also isolated solely from the head (4.00+1.63 CFU cm-2). Escherichia coli was the least prevalent, but it was detected both on the head (2.67+0.47 CFU cm-2) and the tentacles of the studied animals (1.67+0.47 CFU cm-2). Enterococci and fungi were isolated in small quantities from the octopuses' heads and tentacles. The isolated bacteria demonstrated in vitro resistance to most of the tested antibiotics. They were only sensitive to broad-spectrum agents such as amphenicols, tetracyclines, aminoglycoside-aminocyclitols (excluding kanamycin), and quinolones. Staphylococci also showed sensitivity to some penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin). However, lincosamides (clindamycin) were ineffective in vitro against the studied bacteria. Potentiated sulfonamides exhibited high activity against the Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive ones.Aeromonas hydrophila is known to be pathogenic to marine inhabitants, including octopuses. S. simulans, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae are conditionally pathogenic to animals and humans. Their presence on the surface of the studied octopuses, especially E. coli, could indicate seawater fecal contamination and possibly other pathogenic species. The current results also reveal the distribution of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, even among bacteria that are representatives of the normal microflora of octopuses.

Keywords: Octopus, jellyfish, seawater, spectral analysis, microflora, pathogens, antibiotic resistance

How to Cite

Ignatov , I., & Popova, T. P. (2023). Comparative Spectral Analysis of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, Jellyfish and Seawater from Aegean Sea, Evia, Greece. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(24), 119–133.


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