Enzymatic Modifications, as Biomarker for Heavy Metal Toxicity in Catla catla a Fresh Water Fish

Aarefa Jan *

Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Suchitra Banerjee

Department of Biotechnology, Institute for Excellence in Higher Education, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Rajendra Chouhan

Department of Zoology, Government Motilal Vigyan Mahavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Subrata Pani

Environmental Research Laboratory, Environmental Planning and Co-ordination Organization, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Saima Syed

Department of Zoology, Government Degree college for women, Pulwama, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Over the last couple of decades, pollution of the environment has grown to be a significant problem, attracting the curiosity of countless experts from developed as well as underdeveloped countries. Sewage dumping into waterways has a detrimental effect on the aquatic ecosystem and biota since it is the principal sink. As a result of their ability to bioaccumulate and intensify as they ascend food chains, toxic metals are not completely eliminated from the environment. For instance, heavy metals have a tendency to accumulate in the muscular tissues of aquatic species; hence, tissues with elevated levels of toxic metals may be detrimental to the well-being of humans and other animals. Fish have been used as indicator organisms to track contamination in aquatic environments. The fish known as catla catla, an Indian Major carp, is edible and extremely susceptible to even the slightest amount of stress. Fish biomarkers are now often employed to assess the internal and exterior health conditions brought on by toxins.

The purpose of our investigation was to clarify how biomarkers may be used to track and assess the levels of toxic heavy metals in freshwater Catla catla fish.

Results: SOD can be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution, according to the current study's findings. These investigations ultimately aim to quantify pollution concentrations that can cause aquatic environments to undergo permanent biological alterations. Though still mild, the amount of toxicity was approaching to danger. To preserve a healthy and pristine environment, public and government-sponsored initiatives can be undertaken to restrict those activities that discharge contaminants into the ecosystem in an unscientific way.

Conclusion: The study comes to the conclusion that in order to evaluate and track the biological state of the aquatic environment, a multiparameter assessment is required.

Keywords: Heavy metal toxicity, catla catla, biomarkers, antioxidant enzyme (Superoxide Dismutase), oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species (ROS)

How to Cite

Jan , A., Banerjee, S., Chouhan, R., Pani , S., & Syed , S. (2024). Enzymatic Modifications, as Biomarker for Heavy Metal Toxicity in Catla catla a Fresh Water Fish. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(3), 80–91. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2024/v45i33877


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