To Standardise Parameters for Preparation of Extruded Feed Using Various Conventional and Non-Conventional Ingredients

Puneet Kumar Patel *

College of Fisheries (NDUA&T), Kumarganj, Ayodhya, India and College of Fisheries (OUAT), Rangailunda, Berhampur -760007, Odisha, India.

Brundaban Sahu

College of Fisheries (OUAT), Rangailunda, Berhampur -760007, Odisha, India.

Saumyendra Nanda

College of Fisheries (OUAT), Rangailunda, Berhampur -760007, Odisha, India.

Priyanka Acharya

College of Fisheries (OUAT), Rangailunda, Berhampur -760007, Odisha, India.

Dinesh Kumar

College of Fisheries (NDUA&T), Kumarganj, Ayodhya, India.

Lavkush

College of Fisheries (NDUA&T), Kumarganj, Ayodhya, India.

Venkatesh K

College of Fisheries (OUAT), Rangailunda, Berhampur -760007, Odisha, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The purpose of this research was to optimise extruder parameters for the preparation of floating fish diets with appropriate physicochemical qualities. The impact of temperature (90-120oC), moisture content (15%-30%), die diameter (2.0-4.0 mm) and pre-conditioning duration (15-30 m) on physical properties of the pellets such as bulk density, floatability, expansion ratio and water stability, were examined. Accordingly, four iso-nitrogenous (crude protein 35%) experimental diets were formulated for GIFT tilapia advance fry by replacing 50% of GNOC protein of the control diet (T0) by sunflower oilcake (SFOC) (T1), by linseed oilcake (LSOC) (T2) and by fish based silage (T3) protein. The pellets extruded using a combination of 120 oC extruder barrel temperature, 25% moisture content of feed mix, 2.0 mm die diameter and 30 minute of pre-conditioning duration gave most required pellet floatability (90-100%), expansion ratio (1.43-1.61), water stability (95-99%) and bulk density (0.8 - 0.9 g/cm3) for T1 and T2. However, fish silage when incorporated in the feed mix, it affected negatively in all the physical characteristics of a floating feed and resulted in higher bulk density and lower floatability, expansion ratio and also water stability.

Keywords: Twin screw extruder, GIFT tilapia, sunflower oil cake, linseed oil cake, fish silage


How to Cite

Patel, P. K., Sahu , B., Nanda , S., Acharya , P., Kumar, D., Lavkush, & Venkatesh K. (2024). To Standardise Parameters for Preparation of Extruded Feed Using Various Conventional and Non-Conventional Ingredients. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(8), 121–135. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2024/v45i84006

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Halden JE. Formulating practical diet for fish, Journal of the Fisheries Research

Board of Canada. 2014;33:1032-1039.

Munguti JM, Kim JD, Ogello EO. An overview of Kenyan aquaculture: Current status, challenges, and opportunities for future development. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2014;17(1):1–11.

Ngugi CC, Bowman JR and Omolo BO. A new guide to fish farming in Kenya. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Aquaculture CRSP; 2007.

Tsevis AA, Azzaydi TA. Effect of feeding regime on selected species of fish. Article publication of FISON, Agora; Feb., 2000.

Barman BK, Karim M. Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in India, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome. 2007;113-140.

Rath SC, Nayak KC, Mohanta KN, Pradhan C, Rangacharyulu PV, Sarkar S, Giri SS. Nutritional evaluation of rain tree (Samanea saman) pod and its incorporation in the diet of rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) larvae as a non-conventional feed ingredient, Indian Journal of Fisheries. 2014;61:105-11.

Declercq DR. Quality of Western Canadian flaxseed, Canadian Grain Commission; 2006.

Available: www.graincanada.gc.ca.

Garg SK, Alok K and Bhatnagar A. Oilcakes as protein sources in supplementary diets for the growth of (Cirrihinus mrigala) fingerlings: Laboratory and field studies, Bioresource Technology. 2003;86:283–291.

Nikmaram N, Kamani MH and Ghalavand R. The effects of extrusion cooking on antinutritional factors, chemical propertiesand contaminating microorganisms of food. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences. 2015;4(4):352–354.

Alam MS, Kaur J, Khaira H, Gupta K. Extrusion and extruded products: Changes in quality attributes as affected by extrusion process parameters: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2016;56(3):445–473.

Amalraaj S. Extruded floating fish feed a boon for farmers. Online Publication The Hindu: Sci Tech / Agriculture; 2010.

Kearns J. Key points in extruding fish feeds. Feed international, Nov. 9. Cited by Kerry W. T. et al. (1996), Aquaculture Engineering. 1989;15(1):53-65.

Balarin JD, Haller RD. The Intensive culture of tilapia in tanks, receiving cases in recent advances in aquaculture. (Eds. J. F. Mur, R.K Roberts), Lonon Croon Heln Ltd. 1982;260-360.

Sorensen M. A review of the effects of ingredient composition and processing conditions on the physical qualities of extruded highenergy fish feed as measured by prevailing methods. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2012;18(3):233–248.

Alves RML, Grossmann MVE and Silva RSSF. Gelling properties of extruded yam (Dioscorea alata) starch. Food Chemistry. 1999;67(2):123–127.

Ilo S, Schoenlechner R, and Berghofe E. Role of lipids in the extrusion cooking processes. Grasasy Aceites. 2000;51(1–2):97–110.

Akdogan H. High moisture food extrusion. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 1999;34(3):195–207.

Ojo S, Olukunle O, Aduewa T. Performance evaluation of floating fish feed extruder, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). Dec. 2014;7(12) Ver. II:103-113.

Gopakumar K. Products from whole fish, Tropical Fishery Products. 1997;45-67.

FAO. National aquaculture overview: Indian country profile fact sheets, FAO. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, FAO, Rome; 2017.

Tumuluru J. A case study on maximizing aqua feed pellet properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2013;3(3):567–585.

Umar S, Kamarudin MS, and Ramezani-Fard E. Physical properties of extruded aquafeed with a combination of sago and tapioca starches at different moisture contents. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2013;183(1–2):51–55.

AOAC. AOAC Official methods of analysis. 21st Edn., Association of official analytical chemists, washington DC, USA.; 2019.

Rosentrater KA, Muthukumarappan K, Kannadhason S. Effects of ingredients and extrusion parameters on aquafeeds containing DDGS and potato starch. Journal of Aquaculture Feed Science and Nutrition. 2009;1(1):22–38.

Rokey GJ, Plattner B, Souza EMD. Feed extrusion process description. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 2010;39:510–518.

Majumdar RK, Singh RK. The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fishbased expanded snacks. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2014;38(3):864–879.

Meng X, Threinen D, Hansen M, Driedger D. Effects of extrusion conditions on system parameters and physical properties of a chickpea flour-based snack. Food Research International. 2010;43(2):650–658.

Singh RR, Majumdar RK, Venkateshwarlu G. Optimum extrusion-cooking conditions for improving physical properties of fishcereal based snacks by response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;51(9): 1827–1836.

Adeparusi EO, Famurewa JAV. Water temperature and surface coating effect on floatability, water absorption and thickness swelling of feed. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2011;3(4):254-259.

Saalah S, Shapawi R, Othman NA, Bono A. Effect of formula variation in the properties of fish feed pellet. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2010;10(21):2537–2543.

Vijayagopal P. Aquatic feed extrusion technology-an update. Fishing Chimes. 2004;23(10&11):35-48.

Ayadi FY, Muthukumarappan K, Rosentrater KA and Brown ML. Twin-screw extrusion processing of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds using various levels of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Cereal Chemistry. 2011;88(4):363–374.

Bandyopadhyay S, Rout RK. Aquafeed extrudate flow rate and pellet characteristics from low-cost single-screw extruder. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 2001;10(2):3–15.

Mishra K, Samantaray K. Interacting effects of dietary lipid level and temperature on growth, body composition and fatty acid profile of rohu (Labeo rohita), Aquaculture Nutrition. 2004;10(6):359-369.

Odunayo O, Ajiboye O. Optimization of heat and mass transfer process in single screw floating fish feed extruder. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports. 2020;15(1):34-43.