Main Article Content
During the breeding seasons 2017-2019, breeding behaviour of the Red-wattled Lapwing (RL), Vanellus indicus was studied in agricultural fields and non-agricultural nesting grounds located in the northern rural and semi-urban outskirts of Khanna city in Punjab. Observations on nest structure, egg laying, incubation, hatching and other behavioural aspects of the parents/chicks were inferred from video-records, photographs and direct field observations made on 35 clutches containing 117 eggs. In the study area the breeding season extended from April to July and the mean value of the nest structure parameters namely, outer diameter, inner diameter and depth were 21±3.02 cm, 12.08±1.13 cm and 3.05±0.63 cm respectively. The mean clutch size was 3.34±0.81 (range 1-4) and it differed between the agricultural field clutches (2.91±0.94, range: 1-4) and non-agricultural sites (3.54±0.66, range: 2-4). The egg length, breadth, initial weight, egg shape index and volume measured 42.08±1.20 cm, 30.21±0.80 cm, 19.44±1.15 gm, 71.85±2.79 and 17.56±1.04 cm3 respectively. The incubation period varied from 27 to 30 days (n=12) with a mean value of 28.75±0.97 days. A review of the video records spanning 64.55 hours total observation time (TOT) recorded over 06 days of full incubation including the hatching day revealed that the RL parents spent 58.8 hours (91.09% TOT) and 5.75 hours (8.91% TOT) as attentive periods and inattentive periods respectively. Synchronous hatching was completed in one or two successive days (within 24 hours) in 18 clutches/61 eggs and two three-egged hatched asynchronously over three days. Further, the continuous video records made during the present study revealed that the minimum interval between two successive hatching may be as short as 1.72 hours. The newly hatched chick weighed on average 13.65 gm (n=4). A comparison of the hatching success calculated as per the Mayfield Method revealed that it was only 6.90% in agricultural field sites and 64.80% in non-agricultural sites (sparsely grassy vacant plots, low grassy lawns/grounds, cattle dung heaps and rooftops).
Arlott N. Birds of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. William Collins, an imprint of Harper Collins Publishers, London. 2014;400.
Grimmett R, Inskipp T. Birds of Northern India. OM Books International, India. 2010;304.
Birdlife International. Species factsheet: Vanellus indicus.
Available:http://www.birdlife.org on 17/05/2020.
Ali SA. The book of Indian birds. The Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay. 1941;393: 171.
Narwade S, Fartade M, Fartade K. Effect of agricultural activities on breeding success of Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus. National Journal of Life Sciences. 2010;7(1):31-34.
Kler TK, Kumar M. Nesting ecology and egg laying behavior of Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus Bodaert) in agricultural areas of Punjab. J.Res. Punjab agric. Univ. 2013;50(3&4):178-180.
Ali S, Ripley SD. Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan: Together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka, volume 2, Oxford University Press, Bombay, India. 1969;340.
Jerdon TC. The Birds of India. 1. Military Orphan Press. 1862;370–372.
Whistler H. Popular handbook of Indian birds. Gurney and Jackson, London. 1941;262–264.
Sundararaman V. Belly-soaking and nest wetting behavior of Redwattled lapwing, Vanellus indicus (Boddaert). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1989;86:242.
Bhatnagar RK. Interaction of a Redwattled Lapwing and a dog. Newsetter for Birdwatchers. 1978;18(1): 9.
Bhagwat VR. Lapwings and snake. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 1991;31(5&6): 10–11.
Sharma SK. Use of droppings of Indian Hare for nest making by Redwattled Lapwing. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 1992;32(7&8): 19.
Tehsin RH, Lokhandwala J. Unusual nesting of Redwattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1982;79(2):414.
Mundkur T. Observations on the roof-nesting habit of the Redwattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus) in Poona, Maharashtra. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1985;82(1):194–196.
Muralidhar A, Barve S. Peculiar choice of nesting of Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus in an urban area in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Indian Birds. 2013;8(1): 6-9.
Naik RM, George PV, Dixit DB. Some observations on the behaviour of the incubating Red-wattled Lapwing, Vanellus indicus indicus (Bodd.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1961;58(1):223-230.
Desai JH, Malhotra AK. A note on incubation period and reproductive success of the Red-wattled Lapwing, Vanellus indicus at Delhi Zoological Park. J.Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1976;73:392-394.
Kalsi RS, Khera S. Some observations on breeding and displacement behavior of Redwattled Lapwing, Vanellus indicus indicus (Aves: Charadriidae). Research Bulletin (Science) of the Panjab University. 1986;37(III & IV):131-141.
Kumar A, Sharma RK. Observations on breeding behavior and vocalizations in Red-Wattled lapwing, Vanellus indicus (Aves: Charadriidae) from Northern India. J. Exp. Zool. India. 2011;14(1):333-338.
Saxena VL, Saxena AK. The study of nidification behavior in Red-wattled Lapwing, Vanellus indicus. Asian J. Exp. Sci. 2013;27(2):17-21.
Gupta RC, Kaushik TK. On the fundamentals of natural history and present threats to Red-wattled Lapwing in Kurukshetra environs. J. Nat. Appl. Sci. 2011;3(1):62-67.
Sethi VK, Bhatt D, Kumar A, Naithani AB. The hatching success of ground- and roof-nesting Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus in Haridwar, India. Forktail. 2011;27:7-10.
Dhandhukia SN, Patel KB. Growth of various morphometric parameters of Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus) at Junagadh city, Gujarat. PIJR. 2015;4(10):131-132.
Kalsi RS, Khera S. Agonistic and distraction Behaviour of the Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus . Pavo. 1987;25(1&2): 43- 56.
Kalsi RS, Khera S. Some observations on maintenance behaviour of the Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus (Boddaert). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1992;89(3):368–372.
Xiao H, Hu Y, Lang Z, Fang B, Guo W, Zhang Q, Pan X, Lu X. How much do we know about the breeding biology of bird species in the world? Journal of Avian Biology. 2017; 48:513–518.
Maurício GN, Bencke GA, Repenning M, Machado DB, Dias RA, Bugoni L. Review of the breeding status of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Iheringia, Série Zoologia, Porto Alegre. 2013;103(2):163-184.
Grover D, Singh JM, Kumar S. State Agricultural Profile- Punjab. Technical Report; 2017.
Kler TK. Avian diversity observed in some agricultural habitats of Ludhiana, Punjab. Pestology. 2009; 33:46-51.
Kler TK, Kumar M. Breeding ecology of red-wattled lapwing Vanellus indicus in Punjab. Crop Improvement (Spl. Issue). 2012;871- 72.
Kaur M, Khera KS. Egg parameters of the Red Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus) in agricultural ecosystem of Punjab. J. Nat. Appl. Sci. 2017;9(3):1419 -1421.
Zámečník V, Kubelka V, Šálek M. Visible marking of wader nests to avoid damage by farmers does not increase nest predation. Bird Conserv. Int. 2017;28(2):293-301.
Phillips T, Cooper C, Dickinson J, Lowe J, Rietsma R, Gifford K, Bonney R. NestWatch Nest Monitoring Manual. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2007;28.
Podulka S, Rohrbaugh RW, Jr. Bonney R. Handbook of bird biology. Cornell Lab of Ornithology in Association with Princeton University Press; 2004.
Wang JM, Beissinger SR. Partial incubation in birds: its occurrence, function and quantification. The Auk. 2011;128(3):454-466.
Liang D, Gao G, Pagani-Núñez E, Pang H, Liu Y, Luo X, Robinson SK. Incubation behaviour of a high-altitude species: the Fire-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga ignicauda. Bird Study; 2018.
Sabine JB, Meyers JM, Schweitzer SH. A simple, inexpensive video camera setup for the study of avian nest activity. Journal of Field Ornithology. 2005;76(3):293–297.
Cox WA, Pruett MS, Benson TJ, Chiavacci SJ, Thompson FR III. Development of camera technology for monitoring nests. C. A. Ribic, F. R. Thompson III, and P. J. Pietz (editors). Video surveillance of nesting birds. Studies in Avian Biology (no. 43), University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 2012;185-210.
Jiang A, Jiang D, Goodale E, Zhou F, Wen Y. Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis assisting Crested Bunting Melophus lathami at the nest: substantiated evidence for interspecific feeding, Guangxi, south-west China. Forktail. 2016;32:93-96.
Hoyt DF. Practical methods of estimating volume and fresh weight of bird eggs. The Auk. 1979;96:73-77.
Schönwetter M. Handbuch der Oologie. Lief 1-26ß (W. Meise, Ed.). Berlin, Akademie Verlag; 1960-67.
Galbraith H. Effects of egg size and composition on the size, quality and survival of Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) chicks. J. Zool. 1988;214:383-98.
Stadelman WJ, Cotterill OJ. Egg science and technology. An Imprint of the Haworth Press Inc, New York, London. 1995;1-590.
Kendeigh SC. New ways of measuring the incubation period of birds. The Auk. 1963;80:453-461.
Mayfield HF. Suggestions for calculating nest success. Wilson Bull. 1975;87:456–466.
Mayer PM, Smith LM, Ford RG, Watterson DC, McCutchen MD, Ryan MR. Nest construction by a ground-nesting bird represents a potential trade-off between egg crypticity and thermoregulation. Oecologia. 2009;159:893-901.
Clark AB, Wilson DS. Avian breeding adaptations: Hatching asynchrony, brood reduction and nest failure. Quarterly Review of Biology. 1981;56(3):253-277.
Nethersole-Thompson C, D. Egg-shell disposal by birds. British Birds. 1942;35:162-169,190-200,214-224,241-250.
Tinbergen N, Broekhuysen GJ, Feekes F, Houghton JCW, Kruuk H, Szulk E. Egg shell removal by the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus L.; a behaviour component of camouflage. Behaviour. 1962;19(1/2): 74–117.
DOI: 10.2307/ 4533006
Williams DR, Pople RG, Showler DA, Dicks LV, Child MF, zuErmgassen EKHJ, Sutherland WJ. Bird Conservation: Global evidence for the effects of Interventions. Exeter, Pelagic Publishing; 2013.
Khalil S, Hussain T, Anwar M, Rafay M, Abdullah M, Khalid M, Tariq M, Sarwar S, Tabish R, Ashraf I. Breeding biology of Red-wattled Lapwing from Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Int. J. Biodivers. Conserv. 2019;11(2):78-84.
Dillon KG, Conway CJ. Nest predation risk explains variation in avian clutch size. Behav. Ecol. 2018;29(2):301-313.
Fontaine JJ, Martin TE. Parent birds assess nest predation risk and adjust their reproductive strategies. Ecol. Lett. 2006;9:428–434.