Main Article Content
Zooplankton play multiple roles in an aquatic ecosystem. Nutrient recycling, energy flow, microbial remineralization, carbon cycling and maintenance of the population size of primary producers are some of the vital roles of zooplankton. Zooplankton are great indicators of the ecological status of a water body since their population dynamics changes with environmental changes. This study aims to identify the zooplankton population and its dynamics in a lake that was formerly paddy field. Kottakayal is a wetland lying near the Ittikara-Pallimon confluence. Sand and clay mining that is prevalent in this area has changed it into a water logged area. Zooplankton samples were collected from six sampling stations bimonthly for a period of two years from November 2015 to October 2017. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the samples were made using standard protocols. Statistically significant seasonal variation in zooplankton population was noticed. Thirty eight species of zooplankton belonging to 7 different classes, 12 orders and 18 families were identified. Zooplankton abundance was maximum (119915±33053 nm-3) during monsoon season and minimum (55212±19637 nm-3) during pre-monsoon season. Rotifers were the dominant group of zooplankton in Kottakayal. Abundance of rotifers which are the chief food for fishes make this wetland suitable for practising aquaculture. Copepods were the second dominant zooplankton. Presence of species like Keratella, Brachionus, Monostyla, Lecane, Arcella and Difflugia indicated that Kottakayal was subjected to organic pollution.
Rahkola-Sorsa M. The structure of zooplankton communities in large boreal lakes, and assessment of zooplankton methodology. University of Joensuu; 2008.
Jakhar P. Role of phytoplankton and zooplankton as health indicators of aquatic ecosystem: A review. Int. J. Innov. Res. Study. 2013;2(12):489–500.
Vidjak O, et al. Population structure and abundance of zooplankton along the Krka river estuary in spring 2006. Acta Adriat. 2009; 50(1):45–58.
Pansera M, Granata A, Guglielmo L, Minutoli R, Zagami G, Brugnano C. How does mesh-size selection reshape the description of zooplankton community structure in coastal lakes? Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 2014;151:221–235.
Tonapi GT. Fresh water animals of India; an ecological approach. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi (India); 1980.
Plaskitt FJW. Microscopic fresh water life. Daya Books, New Delhi, India; 2008.
Battish SK. Freshwater zooplankton of India. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi, India; 1992.
Trivedy RK, Goel PK. Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies. Karad, India: Environmental publications, Karad, India; 1986.
Paturej E, Kruk M. The impact of environmental factors on zooplankton communities in the Vistula Lagoon. Oceanol. Hydrobiol. Stud. 2011;40(2):37.
González EJ, Matos ML, Peñaherrera C, Merayo S. Zooplankton abundance, biomass and trophic state in some Venezuelan reservoirs. Biomass and Remote Sensing of Biomass, Intech Open; 2011.
Mozumder PK, Naser MN, Ahmed ATA. Abundance of zooplankton and physico-chemical parameters of a polyculture pond of Manikganj, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Zool. 2014;42(1):67–76.
An ZH, Du JH, Zhang YP, Li, Qi JW. Structure of the zooplankton community in Hulun Lake, China. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2011;13:1099–1109.
Sampaio EV, López CM. Zooplankton community composition and some limnological aspects of an oxbow lake of the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brazilian Arch. Biol. Technol. 2000;43(3):285–293.
Neves IF, Rocha O, Roche KF, Pinto AA. Zooplankton community structure of two marginal lakes of the river Cuiabá (Mato Grosso, Brazil) with analysis of Rotifera and Cladocera diversity. Brazilian J. Biol. 2003; 63(2):329–343.
Vineetha G, Madhu NV, Kusum KK, Sooria PM. Seasonal dynamics of the copepod community in a tropical monsoonal estuary and the role of sex ratio in their abundance pattern. Zool. Stud. 2015;54(1):54.
Papakostas S, Michaloudi E, Triantafyllidis A, Kappas I, Abatzopoulos TJ. Allochronic divergence and clonal succession: Two micro-evolutionary processes sculpturing population structure of Brachionus rotifers. Hydrobiologia. 2013;700(1):33–45.
Duggan IC, Green JD, Shiel RJ. Distribution of rotifers in North Island, New Zealand and their potential use as bioindicators of lake trophic state. Rotifera IX, Springer. 2001;155–164.
Wen XL, Xi YL, Qian FP, Zhang G, Xiang XL. Comparative analysis of rotifer community structure in five subtropical shallow lakes in East China: Role of physical and chemical conditions. Hydrobiologia. 2011;661(1):303–316.
Chittapun S, Pholpunthin P, Sanoamuang L. Diversity and composition of zooplankton in rice fields during a crop cycle at Pathum Thani province, Thailand. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 2009;31(3).
Steinberg AJ, Ejsmont-Karabin J, Muirhead JR, Harvey CT, MacIsaac HJ. Consistent, long-term change in rotifer community composition across four Polish lakes. Hydrobiologia. 2009; 624(1):107–114.
Kumari S, et al. Influence of environmental factors on rotifer abundance and biomass in a shallow, tropical oxbow Lake, West Bengal. The Bioscan. 2017;11(2):129–135.
Karuthapandi M, Rao DV, Innocent BX. Rotifer diversity of osmansagar reservoir, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India. 2015;115(1):39–49.
Shah JA, Pandit AK, Shah GM. A research on rotifers of aquatic ecosystems of Kashmir Himalaya for documentation and authentication. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India Sect. B Biol. Sci. 2015;85(1):13–19.
Yousuf AR, Qadri MY. Seasonal abundance of rotifera in a warm monomictic lake. J. Indian Inst. Sci. 2013;63(4):23.
Bielańska-Grajner I. The psammic rotifer structure in three Lobelian Polish lakes differing in pH. Rotifera IX, Springer. 2001; 149–153.
Arora J, Mehra NK. Seasonal dynamics of zooplankton in a shallow eutrophic, man-made hyposaline lake in Delhi (India): Role of environmental factors. Hydrobiologia. 2009; 626(1):27–40.
Rajagopal T, Thangamani A, Sevarkodiyone SP, Sekar M, Archunan G. Zooplankton diversity and physico-chemical conditions in three perennial ponds of Virudhunagar district, Tamilnadu. J. Environ. Biol. 2010;31(3):265–272.
Sugumaran J, Amsath A. Seasonal diversity of rotifers from agniyar estuary, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu, India. Int. J. Pure Appl. Zool. 2015;3(4):287–292.
Lin Q, Duan S, Hu R, Han B. Zooplankton distribution in tropical reservoirs, South China. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. A J. Cover. all Asp. Limnol. Mar. Biol. 2003;88(6):602– 613.
Sulehria AQK, Mushtaq R, Ejaz M. Abundance and composition of Rotiferes in a pond near balloki headworks. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2012;22(4):1065–1069.
Frutos SM, Poi ASG, Neiff JJ. Zooplancton abundance and species diversity in two lakes with different trophic states (Corrientes, Argentina). Acta Limnol. Bras. 2009;21(3): 367–375.
Jose R, Sanalkumar MG. Seasonal variations in the Zooplankton diversity of River Achencovil. Int. J. Sci. Res. Publ. 2012;2(11):1–5.
Bera A, Bhattacharya M, Patra BC, Sar UK. Ichthyofaunal diversity and water quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India. Adv. Zool.; 2014.
Work K, Havens K, Sharfstein B, East T. How important is bacterial carbon to planktonic grazers in a turbid, subtropical lake? J. Plankton Res. 2005;27(4):357–372.
Godhantaraman N, Uye S. Geographical and seasonal variations in taxonomic composition, abundance and biomass of microzooplankton across a brackish-water lagoonal system of Japan. J. Plankton Res. 2003;25(5):465–482.
Modenutti B, Queimaliños C, Balseiro E, Reissig M. Impact of different zooplankton structures on the microbial food web of a South Andean oligotrophic lake. Acta Oecologica. 2003;24:289–298.
Chiverrell RC. A proxy record of late Holocene climate change from May Moss, northeast England. J. Quat. Sci. Publ. Quat. Res. Assoc. 2001;16(1):9–29.
Charman DJ, Brown AD, Hendon D, Karofeld E. Testing the relationship between Holocene peatland palaeoclimate reconstructions and instrumental data at two European sites. Quat. Sci. Rev. 2004;23(1–2):137–143.
Radhakrishnan R, Jayaprakas V. Free living protozoans as bioindicators in Vembanad lake, Kerala, India, an important Ramsar site. Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Stud. 2015;2(3):192–197.