Main Article Content
Prosopis juliflora plant species is an exotic species that is widely spreads in India. Present study (August, 2017 to February, 2020 in Udaipur district, Rajasthan) indicates that abundance of Prosopis juliflora and native floral species were correlated with the bird’s species diversity, richness and abundance. Study divided into four categories on the basis abundance of Prosopis juliflora- very low abundance of Prosopis juliflora (VALPJ), low abundance of Prosopis juliflora (LAPJ), medium abundance of Prosopis juliflora(MAPJ) and high abundance of Prosopis juliflora (HAPJ). Distribution of bird’s species in different area can be directly related to the density of native vegetation and P. juliflora composition. Highest bird diversity and abundance was observed in VLAPJ followed by LAPJ, MAPJ and lowest observed in HAPJ. P. juliflora leads to change in habitat and affect availability of food and nesting sites due to alleo-chemical substance releasing in soils, they inhibit growth of other native plant. Simpson diversity (0.9699) and Shannon diversity (3.872) were maximum observed in VALPJ area and minimum Simpson diversity (0.9556) and Shannon diversity (3.34) observed in HAPJ area. Birds abundance of VALPJ area was (Brillouin = 3.834, Fisher_ alpha= 15.85) maximum and minimum birds abundance was recorded in HAPJ area (Brillouin= 3.227, Fisher_ alpha= 7.541). Highest species richness was observed in VLAPJ (Menhinick= 1.193, Margalef’s= 10.74, Chao-1=95.6) and lowest richness was recorded in HAPJ (Menhinick=1.029, Margalef’s= 5.328, Chao-1=40). Common species like babbler, house sparrow, dove were generally observed in HAPJ area, but environmental sensitive species vultures, kites, eagles and owls were completely absent in high abundance of HAPJ area. Present study shows high abundance of P. juliflora (HAPJ) negatively affects bird’s diversity, abundance and richness. While native vegetations provide better habitat and suitable habitat for birds.
Maundu P, Kibet S, Morimoto Y, Imbumi M, Deka R. Impact of Prosopis juliflora on Kenya’s semi-arid and arid ecosystems and local livelihoods. Biodiversity. 2009;10(2-3): 33–50.
Mwangi E, Swallow B. Invasion of Prosopis juliflora and Local livelihoods: case study from the lake baringo area of Kenya. World Agro forestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 2005.
Rejmánek M, Richardson DM. Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species – 2013 update of the global database. Diversity and Distributions. 2013;19(8):1093–1094.
Cronk QCB. A new species and hybrid in the St Helena endemic genus Trochetiopsis. Edin. Journal of Botany. 1995;81(6):942-951.
Usher MB. Biological invasions into tropical nature reserves, Ramakrishna (Ed.) Ecology of biological invasions in the tropics. International Scientific Publications. New Delhi. 1991;21-34.
Vitousek PM, Antonio CMD, Loope LL, Westbrooks R. Biological invasions as global environmental change. American Scientist. 1996;84:468- 478.
Chaudhary DR, Ghosh A, Chikara J, Patolia JS. Elemental content of three plant species growing on abandoned fly ash landfill. Indian Forester. 2009;135:393–402.
Gallaher T, Merlin M. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. Prosopis pallida and Prosopis juliflora (Algarroba, Mesquite, Kiawe) (Fabaceae). Pacific Science. 2010;64:489–526.
Pasiecznik NM, Felker P, Harris PJC, Harsh LN, Cruz G, Tewari JC, Cadoret K, Maldonado LJ. The Prosopis juliflora–Prosopis pallida complex: A Monograph. HDRA, Coventry, UK; 2001.
Zare S, Tavili A, Darini MJ. Effects of different treatments on seed germination and breaking seed dormancy of Prosopis koelziana and Prosopis juliflora. Journal of Forestry Research. 2011;22:35–38.
Maheshwari JK. Flora of Delhi. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Delhi, India; 1997.
Laxén J. Is Prosopis a curse or a blessing? - An ecological-economic analysis of an invasive alien tree species in Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), University of Helsinki, Finland; 2007.
Pandey CN, Pandey R, Bhatt JR. Woody, alien and invasive Prosopis juliflora(Swartz) D.C.: Management dilemmas and regulatory issues in Gujarat. 2012;299–304. In: Bhatt JR, Singh JS, Singh SP, Tripathi RS, Kohli RK, (Eds.) Invasive alien plants: An ecological appraisal for the Indian subcontinent. CAB International, Oxford shire, United Kingdom. 2012;299-304.
Walter K. Prosopis, an alien among the sacred trees of South India. Doctoral Dissertation (monograph), University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Forest Sciences; 2011.
Andrade LA, Fabricante JR, Oliveira FX. Biological invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC: Impacts on diversity and structure of the woody component of Caatinga in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica. 2009;23:935–943.
El-Keblawy A, Al-Rawai A. Impacts of the invasive exotic Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D. C. on the native flora and soils of the UAE. Plant Ecology. 2017;190:23–35.
Singh G, Rathod TR, Mutha S, Upadhyaya S, Bala N. Impact of different tree species canopy on diversity and productivity of understory vegetation in Indian desert. Tropical Ecology. 2008;49:13–23.
Dayal V. Social diversity and ecological complexity: How an invasive tree could affect diverse agents in the land of the tiger. Environment and Development Economics. 2007;12:553–571.
Bhojvaid P, Timmer V, Singh G. Reclaiming sodic soils for wheat production by Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC a forestation in India. Agro Forestry Systems. 1996;34:139–150.
Jain RK, Garg VK. Effect of a decade old tree stands on some properties of soils while re-vegetating sodic wastelands. Indian Forester. 1996;122:467–475.
Western D, Grimsdell JJR. Measuring the distribution of animals in relation to environment – Handbook No. 2 (2 Edn.). African Wildlife Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya; 1997.
Lawson JH, Bignell DE, Bolton B, Bloemers GF, Eggleton P, Hammond PM, Hodda M, Holt RD, Larsen TB, Mawdsley NA, Stork NE, Srivastava DS, Watt AD. Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature. 1998;391:72-76.
Gregory RD, Noble D, Field R, Marchant JH, Raven M, Gibbons DW. Using birds as indicators of biodiversity. Ornis Hungaria 2003;12(13):11–24.
Gregory RD, Vorisek P, Noble DG, Strien AV, Klvanova A, Eaton M, Meyling AWG, Joys A, Foppen RPB, Burfield I.J. The generation and use of bird population indicators in Europe. Bird Conserve. Int. 2008;18:223–244.
Elton CS. The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. London: Methuen; 1958.
Case TK. Invasion resistance arises in strongly interacting species-rich model competition communities. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences. 1990;87:9610-9614.
Tilman D. Community invisibility, recruitment limitation and grassland biodiversity. Ecology. 1997;78:81-92.
Law R, Morton RD. Permanence and the assembly of ecological communities. Ecology. 1996;77:762-775.
Rejmanek M. Invisibility of plant communities. In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmanek M, Williamson M. (Eds.) Biological Invasions. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1989;369-388.
Taper ML, Bohning-Gaese K, Brown JH. Individualistic responses of bird species to environmental change. Oecologia. 1995;101: 478–486.
Olechnowski BF. An examination of songbird avian diversity, abundance trends and community composition in two endangered temperate ecosystems: Riparian willow habitat of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and a restored tall grass prairie ecosystem, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge Iowa State University. Iowa State University; 2009.
Johns AD. Responses of Amazonian rain forest birds to habitat modification. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 1991;7(4):417–437.
Whelan CJ, Wenny DG, Marquis R.J. Ecosystem services provided by birds. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 208;1134:25-60.
Sekercioglu CH. Bird functional diversity and ecosystem services in tropical forests, agro-forests and agricultural areas. J. Ornithol. 2012;153:153–161.
Veech JA, Small MF, Baccus JT. The effect of habitat on the range expansion of a native and an introduced bird species. Journal of Biogeography. 2011;38:69–77.
Thompson WL. Towards reliable bird surveys: Accounting of individuals present but not detected. Auk. 2002;119:18-25.
Qiu Yin Long, Libo L, Bin W, Zhiduan C, Volker K, Milena GM, Olena D, Jungho L, Livia K, Joshua R, George FE, Tory AH, David WT, Mathew A, Christopher MT, Barbara CS, Joel DR, Michael S, Wolfgang F, Dietmer Q. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylo genomic evidence. National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 2006;103(42):15511-15516.
Grimett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. Birds of the Indian subcontinent (second edition). Oxford University Press, India; 2011.
Vyas R. Birds of Rajasthan. BNHS and Oxford University Press. 2013;XIV + 326.
Simpson EH. Measurement of diversity. Nature. 1949;163:688.
Pielou EC. Ecological diversity. New York, Wiley Inter Science; 1975.
Kempton RA, Taylor LR. Models and statistics for species diversity. Nature. 1976;262:818-820.
Hayek L-AC, Buzas MA. Surveying natural populations. Columbia University Press, New York. 1997;563.
Chao A. Non-parametric estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scand. J. Stat. 1984;11:265-270.
Wilson MV, Shmida A. Measuring beta diversity with presence–absence data. Journal of Ecology. 1984;72:1055–1064.
Whittaker RH. Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. 1960;30(3): 279-338.
Magurran AE. Ecological diversity and its measurement. London: Chapman and Hall; 1988.
Southwood TRE, Henderson PA. Ecological methods. Blackwell Science, Oxford; 2000.
Cody ML. Towards a theory of continental species diversities: Bird distributions over Mediterranean habitat gradients. Ecology and Evolution of Communities (Eds M.L. Cody & J.M. Diamond), Belknap Press, Harvard. 1975;214-257.
Routledge RD. On Whittaker’s components of diversity. Ecology. 1977;58:1120–1127.
Mourelle C, Ezcurra E. Differentiation diversity of Argentine cacti and its relationship to environmental factors. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1997;8:547–558.
Hector A, Purvis A. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature. 2000;405:212-219.
Pollock KH, Nichols DJ, Simons RT, Farnsworth LG. Large scale wildlife monitoring studies: Statistical methods for design and analysis. Environmetrics: The Official Journal of International Environ Metrics Society. 2002;13(2):105-119.
Gaston KJ, Spicer JI. Biodiversity: An introduction 1st. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK; 2004.
Wiens JA, The ecology of the Bird’s communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1989;2. ISSBN: 0-521-36558-9.
Gracia CM, Carcia RR, Rendon M, Xaview NF, Lucena J. Hydrological cycle and inter annual variability of the aquatic community in temporary saline lake (Fuente de Piedra, Southern Spain). Hydrobiologia. 1997;345: 131-141.
Caziani S, Derlindati EJ. Abundance and habitat of high Andes flamingoes in Northwestern Argentina. Waterbirds. 2000;23: 121-123.
Grewal B. Birds of the Indian subcontinent. Local Colour, Hong Kong. 2000;213.
Bernard H, Fjeldsåå J, Mohamed M. A case study on the effects of disturbance and conversion of tropical lowland rain forest on the non-Volant small mammals in North Borneo: Management implications. Mammal Study. 2009;34(2):85-96.