Main Article Content
Malathion (organophosphorus pesticide) is used worldwide in the agricultural field due to its biodegradability and non-persistent properties to control the harmful pest. However their range of harmful effects on animals extends far beyond the agricultural pest. The main objective of this study is to observe the impact of sub-lethal concentration (96 hours) of organophosphorus malathion on the gills of freshwater fish Clarias batrachus. The organophosphorus pesticide malathion (50% EC) was purchased from the local market of Jhansi. After volumetric experimentation and selection of required dose of biomarker (malathion) as per experimental protocol, value of malathion LC50 96 hours calculated 0.25 ppm. The sub-lethal concentration of 0.025 ppm was determined by using 1/10th of LC50 at 96 hours. The effect of malathion on sub-lethal concentration (1/10 of 96 hours of LC50) and histological observation were recorded on the gills of treated fishes. Some reasonable alterations were observed in the gills sections of treated fishes as compared to the control group. These histological changes were characterized as:- Thickening of secondary lamellae, hemorrhage at primary lamellae, deformation of the cartilage core, erosion of secondary lamellae, blood congestion in the secondary lamellae, shortening of the secondary lamellae. This study indicates that the deformation of the gills depended on the duration of exposure and concentration of Malathion dose.
Bhadbhade BJ, Sarnaik SS, Kanekar P. Biomineralization of an organophosphorus pesticide, Monocrotophos, by soil bacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2002;93(2): 224-34.
Bernet D, Schmidt H, Meier W, Burkhardt-Holm P, Wahli T. Histopathology in fish: pro-posal for a protocol to assess aquatic pollution. Journal of Fish Disease. 1999;22:25-34.
Sakakushi H. Bull. Tap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 1972;38:555.
Dutta HM, Nath A, Adhikari S, Roy PK, Singh NK, Munshi JSD. Sublethal Malathion induced changes in the ovary of an air-breathing fish, Heteropneustes fossilis a histological study. Hydrobiologia. 1994;294(3):215-218.
Zhang YU, Jiao An, Wei Ye, Yang G, Qian ZG, Chen HF, Li Cui, Feng Y. Enhancing the promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity of a thermostable lactonase (GkaP) for the Efficient Degradation of Organophosphate Pesticides, Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012;78(18):6647–6655.
Yogesh. Sublethal, and Chronic effect of Carbaryl and Malathion on Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Journal of Applied Science. Environ. Manage. 2009;13(2):23-26.
Mukesh KN. The effect of pesticides on the fish fauna of Bhopal lower lake (M.P.). African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2013;7(7):725-727.
Dalela RC, Bhatnagar MC, Tyagi AK, Verma SR. Histological damage of gills in Channa gachua after acute and subacute exposure to endosulfan and Rogor. Mikroskopie (Vienna). 1979;35:301-307.
Diwakar A, Pandey D. Toxic effect of malathion on Clarias batrachus. JETIR. 2019;6:6.
Diwakar A, Pandey D. Histological sublethal concentration effect on the liver of freshwater fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.) exposed to malathion. IJBSAC. 2020;2:10.