EFFECT OF SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF PHENOL ON SELECTED HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF Oreochromis niloticus

Main Article Content

P. M. KRISHNAPRIYA
SHALU SOMAN
A. U. ARUN

Abstract

Phenol and its compounds are ubiquitous water pollutants which come to the natural water resources from the effluents of a variety of chemical industries such as coal refineries, phenol manufacturing industries, pharmaceuticals, and industries of resin, paint, textile, leather and pulp mill etc, besides this phenol is a major constituent of plywood effluents. Perumbavoor, Ernakulam (District) of Kerala is a one of the major plywood industry belt and hundreds of factories have been working in a limited area. All these plywood factories are discharging the effluents directly into the nearby water bodies without any proper treatment. Blood from dosed fishes was assayed for selected haematological parameters (haemoglobin, red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, PCV) and biochemical parameters (total protein, glucose, globulin, and albumin). There was a significant negative correlation between dosage concentration and haemoglobin (p < 0.05); dosage concentration and RBC count (p < 0.05); PCV and dosage concentration (p < 0.05) and dosage concentration and protein concentration (p >0.05) in fish. A significant positive correlation was observed between WBC count and dosage concentration and glucose level and dosage concentration. As the dosage increases the WBC count also increases gradually; in control the average value was 122 x 103 cells/cc, in 1/10th dilution it was 133 x 103 cells/cc, in 1/5th dilution is was 135 x 103 cells/cc whereas in 1/2nd dilution is was 136 x 103 cells/cc. It is noted that phenol adversely affects the normal life of the organisms and invariably alters all the biochemical parameters of the body.

Keywords:
Phenol, LC50, white blood cells, red blood cells, packed cell volume, Oreochromis niloticus.

Article Details

How to Cite
KRISHNAPRIYA, P. M., SOMAN, S., & ARUN, A. U. (2020). EFFECT OF SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF PHENOL ON SELECTED HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF Oreochromis niloticus. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 41(14), 26-36. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1676
Section
Original Research Article

References

Gaur V, Mathur A. Evaluation of antioxidant profile of Labeo rohita in stress condition after exposure to phenolic compounds. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2017;7(6):2250-3153.

Saha NC, Bhunia F, Kaviraj A. Toxicity of phenol to fish and aquatic ecosystems. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2017;63:195-202.

Varadarajan R, Sankar H, Jose J, Philip B. Sublethal effects of phenolic compounds on biochemical, histological and ionoregulatory parameters in a tropical teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(3):2250-3153.

Tsutsui T, Hayashi N, Maizumi H, Huff J, Burret J. Benzene –catechol hydroquinone andphenol induced cell transformation, gene mutation, chromosome aberration, aneuploidy, sister chromatidex changes and unscheduled DNA synthesis in Syrian hamster embryo cell. Mutat Res. 1997;373:112-123.

Hori TS, Avilez LM, Inoue KL, Moraes G. Metabolic changes induced by chronic phenol exposure in matrinxa Brycon cephalus (teleostei chracidae) juveniles. Comparative Biochemical. Physiol. 2006;143:67-72.

Roche H, Boge G. In vivo effects of phenolic compounds on blood parameters of a marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 2000;C 125:345-353.

Moraes F, Rossi PA, Figueiredo JS, Venturini FP, Cortella LR, Moraes G. Metabolic responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to phenol and post-exposure recovery. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 2016;88(2).

Hansch C, McCarns S, Smith C, Dodittle D. Comparative quantitative structure-activity relationship evidence for a free-radical mechanism of phenol-induced toxicity. Chemi-co-Biological Interactions. 2000;127(1):61–72.

Nahed S. Gad, Amal S. Saad. Effect of environmental pollution by phenol on some physiological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus. Global Veterinaria. 2008;2(6):312–319.

Rand GM, Wells PG, MCcarty LS. Introduction to aquatic toxicology. In: Rand, G.M. (Ed), Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology, 2nd Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 1995;3-66.

Zagatto PA, Bertoletti E. Ecotoxicologia aquática, princípios e aplicações. São Carlos: Rima. 2006;478.

Mazeoud MM, Mazeoud F, Donaldson EM. Primary and secondary effect of stress in fish: Some new data with a general review. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 1977;106:201–212.

Mahboob S, Al-Balawi HFA, Al-Misned F, Al-Quraishy S, Ahmad Z. Tissue metal distribution and risk assessment for important fish species from Saudi Arabia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;92:61-66.

Ugryumov S. A study of the viscosity of phenol–formaldehyde resin modified with furfural–acetone monomer FA. Polym. Sci. (Ser. D vol 10). 2017;2:99-102.

Ugryumov S, Sviridov A, Fedotov A. Investigation of the properties of modified phenol-formaldehyde oligomer using IR spectroscopy. Polym. Sci. (Ser. D vol 11). 2018;3:277-279.

Blaxhall PC, Daisley KW. Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology. 1973;5:771-781.

Ibu IO, Adeniyi KO. A manual of practical Physiology University of Jos, Press Ltd. Nig. 1989;249.

Larsen HN, Snieszko SF. Comparison of various method of determination of haemoglobin in trout blood. Fish Culture. 1961;23:8-7.

Lowry OH, Rosembrough NJ, Farr AL. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 1951;193(1): 267-275.

Bartholomew RL, Delaney Aileen M. Determination of serum albumin. Proe. Austral. Assoc. Clin. Biochem. 1966;1:214-218.

Sasaki T, Matsuvs, Sanne A. Effect of acetic acid concentration of the colour reaction in the O-toluidine boric acid for blood glucose determination. Rinsho Kagaku. 1972;1:346-353.

Bhagwant S, Bhikajee M. Induction of hypo-chromic macrocytic anemia in Oreochromis hybrid (cichlidae) exposed to 100 mg/l (sublethal dose) of aluminium. Sci. Technol. Res. J. 2000;5:9-20.

Ates B, Orun I, Talas ZS, Durmaz G, Yilmaz I. Effects of sodium selenite on some biochemical and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) exposed to Pb2+ and Cu2+. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 2008;34:53– 59.

Javed M, Ahmad I, Ahmad A, Usmani N, Ahmad M. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) Perciformes, Channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent. Springer Plus. 2016;5(1):761.

Nte ME, Hart AE, Edun OM, Akinrotimi OA. Effects of industrial effluents on haematological parameters of black jaw tilapia Sarothedon melanotheron (RUPELL, 1852). Continental J. Environmental Sciences. 2011;5(2):29–37.

Wedmeyer O, Mcleay DJ, Goodyear CP. Assessing the tolerance of fish and fish population to environmental stress. The problems and methods of monitoring. In. Contaminant effects on fisheries. Cairns WV, Hudson PV, Nriaagu JO, (Eds). John Wiley and Son Inc. New York. 1984;164-195.

Madhyastha MN, Nayak RR. Effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (an anionic detergent) on Rasbora daniconius (Ham.). Proc. Symp. Environ. Biol. 1979;327-336.

VanVuren JHJ. The effects of toxicants on the haematology of Labeo umbratus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 1986;83(1):155.

Anandkumar A, Tripathy AP, Tripathy NK. Effect of dimecron on the blood parameters of Heteropneustes fossilis. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2006;22(4):297-299.

Mishra A, Poddar A. Niyogi. Haematology of freshwater Murrel (Channa punctatus Bloch), exposed to phenolic industrial wastes of the Bhilai Steel plant (Chhattisgarh, India). International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2013;4(4):1866-188.

Wepener V, Vuren JHJV, Dupreez HH. The effect of hexavalent chromium at different pH values on the haematology of Tilapia sparrmanii (Cichlidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1992;161:375-381.

Adakole JA. Changes in some haematological parameters of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to a metal finishing company effluent. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;5:4.

Banerjee G, Narayana Rao B, Srikanth K, Ramu G. Haematological changes in the freshwater fish, Channa punctatus due to the effect of Rayon Industry effluents. Poll Res. 2010;28(3):409-14.

Haider MJ, Rauf A. Sub-lethal effects of diazinon on hematological indices and blood biochemical parameters in Indian Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2014;57(6):947-953.

Canli M. Effects of mercury, chromium and nickel on glycogen reserves and protein levels in tissues of Cyprinus carpio. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 1996;20:161–168.

Almeida JA, Novelli EL, Dal Pai Silva M, Junior RA. Environmental cadmium exposure and metabolic responses of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Environ Pollut. 2001;114(2):169-175.

Ramesh M, Saravanan M. Haematological and biochemical responses in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to chlorpyrifos. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2008;3(1):80.

Masud S, Singh IJ. Effect of cypermethrin on some hematological parameters and prediction of their recovery in a freshwater Teleost, Cyprinus carpio. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2003;7(9):852-856.