Main Article Content
The present study was conducted to understand the impact of soil physicochemical parameters on population density and vertical distribution pattern of a soil collembolan Bilobella braunerae in grasslands of Southern Western Ghats. The results revealed that maximum mean abundance of collembola was found during postmonsoon season (26.9) followed by monsoon (20.05) and premonsoon (7.1). Population density of organisms was high in 0-10 cm layer of soil during postmonsoon season. A vertical migration pattern was observed with increase in soil temperature and decreasing moisture content during premonsoon season. During monsoon season owing to heavy rainfall organism shows a vertical migration to 10-20 cm depth and thus lesser number of organisms were seen in 0-10 cm layer of soil .Seasons exerted a strong effect on the abundance of B. braunerae in grassland .Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was used to make the selection about soil components which directly influence the population. The first five principal components (PCs) explained more than 80% of the total variance in all seasons .The PCA showed significant effect of soil pH, organic carbon, soil moisture, temperature, phosphorous and potassium on the population density of B. braunerae.
Römbke J, Sousa JP, Schouten T, Riepert F. Monitoring of soil organisms: a set of standardized field methods proposed by ISO. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 2006;42:S61–S64.
Parisi V, Menta C, Gardi C, Jacomini C, Mozzanica E. Microarthropod communities as a tool to assess soil quality and biodiversity: A new approach in Italy. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2005;105:323–333.
Anderson DW, Coleman DC. The dynamics of organic matter in grassland soils. J. Soil Water Conserv. 1985;40:211–216.
Huhta V, Setälä H, Haimi J. Leaching of N and C from birch leaf litter and raw humus with special emphasis on the influence of soil fauna. Soil Biol. Biochem. 1988;20:875–878.
Striganova BR, Chernobrovkina NP. The effect of Diplopoda on the dynamics of amino acids in the soil. Berichte Des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins Innsbruck. 1992;297–303.
Heisler C, Kaiser EA. Influence of agricultural traffic and crop management on collembola and microbial biomass in arable soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils. 1995;19:159–165.
HK. An active bioindication method for the diagnosis of soil properties using Collembola. Pedobiologia (Jena). 1997;159-166.
Wallwork JA. Ecology of soil animals. Ecol. soil Anim; 1970.
Badejo MA. Seasonal abundance of soil mites (Acarina) in two contrasting environments. Biotropica. 1990;382–390.
Setälä H, Marshall VG, Trofymow JA. Influence of micro- and macro-habitat factors on collembolan communities in Douglas-fir stumps during forest succession. Appl. Soil Ecol. 1995;2:227–242.
Bardgett RD, Chan KF. Experimental evidence that soil fauna enhance nutrient mineralization and plant nutrient uptake in montane grassland ecosystems. Soil Biol. Biochem. 1999;31: 1007–1014.
Kaneda S, Kaneko N. Influence of soil quality on the growth of Folsomia candida (Willem) (Collembola). Pedobiologia (Jena). 2002;46: 428–439.
Chagnon M, Pare D. Relationships between soil chemistry, microbial biomass and the collembolan fauna of southern Quebec sugar maple stands. Ecoscience. 2000;7:307–316.
Didden WAM. Ecology of terrestrial Enchytraeidae. Pedobiologia (Jena). 1993;37: 2–29.
Luxton M. Studies on the oribatid mites of a Danish beech wood soil. V. Vertical distribution; 1981.
Verhoef HA, van Selm AJ. Distribution and population dynamics of Collembola in relation to soil moisture. Ecography (Cop.). 1983;6: 387–388.
Asif MU, Ahmed S, Khan RR, Atiq M. Relationship of Collembola population with different abiotic factors in an agricultural ecosystem of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Agric. Sci. 2016;53:201–208.
Walkey A, Black IA. An examination of degtjareff method for determination of soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid in soil analysis I. Exp. J. Soil Sci. 1934;79:459–465.
Rice A, Baird EW, Eaton RB. APHA 2017 Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Washington: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Env. Federation ISBN); 2017.
Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis. (Constable and Co (1958); 1958.
Trivedy RK, PKG Environmental water and soil analysis. Enviro Media Publications; 1987.
Denlinger DL. Seasonal and annual variation of insect abundance in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya. Biotropica. 1980;100–106.
Sabais ACW, Scheu S, Eisenhauer N. Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland. Acta Oecologica. 2011;37:195–202.
Abbas MJ, Parwez H. Impact of edaphic factors on the diversity of soil microarthropods in an agricultural ecosystem at Aligarh. Indian J. Fundam. Appl. Life Sci. 2012;2:185–191.
Bardgett RD. The biology of soil: a community and ecosystem approach. Oxford University Press; 2005.
Wiwatwitaya D, Takeda H. Seasonal changes in soil arthropod abundance in the dry evergreen forest of north-east Thailand, with special reference to collembolan communities. Ecol. Res. 2005;20:59–70.
Xu GL, Kuster TM, Günthardt-Goerg MS, Dobbertin M, Li MH. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites. PLoS One. 2012;7: e43102.
Bhattacharya TRD. Monthly variation in the density of soil microarthropods in relation to some climatic and edaphic factors. Entomon. 1979;4:313-318.
SH. Biology of the Springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Oxford University Press, Cambridge, UK; 1997.
Wallwork JA. Cryptostigmata (oribatid mites). Entomol. Antarct. 1967;10:105–122.