Main Article Content



Mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori is a tiny insect with great economic and scientific significance. Silkworms are delicate and susceptible to different groups of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacterial, protozoan, viral and fungal pathogens due to continuous domestication for centuries. Disease occurrence is the main reason for not achieving the potential yield parameters of silkworm cocoon crops. Silkworm is the best model to assess the immune mechanism in insects and possesses a well-organized and competent immune system that eliminates different types of invading pathogenic microorganisms to protect the body from infection. The immune system in silkworm Bombyx mori mainly comprises of cellular immunity and humoural immunity. The cellular immunity is mediated by different types of haemocytes viz., prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids resides in the haemolymph of silkworm Bombyx mori. Humoral reactions require several hours for full expression while cellular interactions are immediate and direct between haemocytes and the invading pathogens that include phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation. Dynamics of total and differential haemocyte count designate the degree of tolerance/resistance of the host system to infections and can be used as a catalogue for diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, the investigation was carried out with the following objective To examine the cellular immune-potency in silkworm Bombyx mori during the progress of fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana by quantifying the density of total and differential haemocytes in three popular silkworm hybrids viz., double hybrid (CSR2 x CSR27) x (CSR6 x CSR 26), crossbreed (PM x CSR2) and bivoltine single hybrid (CSR2 x CSR4) compared to healthy silkworms.

Bombyx mori, Beauveria bassiana, cellular immunity, total haemocyte count, differential haemocyte count.

Article Details

How to Cite
PRAVEENA, M. S., & SAVITHRI, G. (2021). CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE TO ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS Beauveria bassiana IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF SILKWORM Bombyx mori L. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 41(23), 128-140. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1799
Original Research Article


Bassi A. Del mal del Segno calcinaccio moscardino mal attacheaf figgeibachid asetaparte 1. Teorica Tip. Orcesi, Lodi; 1835.

Broome JR, Sikorowski P, Norment BR. A mechanism of pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana on larvae of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri. Biology, Medicine, Journal of invertebrate Pathology; 1976.

Mullins. Haemolymph being a circulatory fluid performs several functions; 1985.

Lawrence PO. Hemocytes of Insects: Their Morphology and Function. In: Capinera J.L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht; 2008.

Inoue N, Hanada K, Natoshi T, Igarashi I, Nagasawa H, Mikami T, Eujisaki K. Charachterization of phagocytic hemocytes in Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 2001;35:514-519.

Russo J, Brehelin M, Carton Y. Hemocyte changes in resistant and susceptible strains of D. melanogaster caused by virulent and avirulent strains of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina bouladi. Journal of Insect Physiology. 2001;47:167-172.

Narayanan K. Insect defence: its impact on microbial control of insect pests, Current Science. 2004;86(6):800-813.

Balavenkatasubbaiah M, Nataraju B, Selvakumar T, Thiagarajan V, Datta RK. Haemocyte counts in different breeds of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. and their changes during progressive infection of BmNPV. Ind. Seric. 2001;40(2):158-162.

Balavenkatasubbaiah M, Nataraju B, Thiyagarajan V. Datta. Haemocyte counts in different breeds of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. and their changes during progressive infection of BmNPV. Indian J. Seric. 2005; 40(2):158-162.

Gupta AP. Arthropod immunocytes. Identification, structure, functions, and analogies to the functions of vertebrate Band T- lymphocytes. In: A. P Gupta (ed.), Hemocytic and humoral immunity in arthropods. J. Wiley & Sons, New York. 1986; 3-59.

Abbas MN, Zhu BJ, Kausar S, Dai LS, Sun YX, Tian JW. Suppressor of cytokine signalling 2-12 regulates antimicrobial peptides and ecdysteroid signaling pathways in B. mori (Dazao). J. Insect Physiol. 2017; 103:47-56.

Jones JC. Current concepts concerning insect hemocytes. Amer. Zool. 1962;2:209–246.

Chain BM, Anderson RS. Selective depletion of the plasmatocytes in Gallería mellonella following injection of bacteria. J. Insect Physiol. 1982; 28:377-384.

Nappi AJ. Cellular immune response of Drosophila melanogaster against Asobaratabida. Parasitology 1981;83(3):19-324.

Eslin P, Prévost G. Hemocyte load and immune resistance to Asobaratabidaare correlated in species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. J Insect Physiol. 1998; 44(9):807-816.

Chen Wu-guo, Luo Qi-gui, Wang Dan, Gao Yuan. Study on hemolymph pathology of Heliothis armigera infected by Ovomermi scinensis. Journal of Central China Normal University. (Natural Sciences); 2002.

Gilliam M, Shimanuki H. Progress report: studies of honeybee blood. American Bee Journal. 1967; 107:256.

Kumar KKP, Singh GP. Hemocyte and biochemical changes of Antheraea mylitta D. infected with Antheraea mylitta Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (Am CPV). Int. J. Sci and Res. 2015;4(12):276-279.

Ganjendra Pal Singh, Ajit Kumar Sinha, Deepak Kumar Roy, Alok Sahay, Kallahally Nagendra Madhusudhan, Phani Kiran Kumar and Bhagwan Chandra Prasad. Cellular and Biochemical changes of Antheraea mylitta D. on immuniztion with Attenuated Antheraea mylitta Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus. Intr J Zoological Research. 2011;7(3):263-271.

Gupta AP, Sutherland DJ. Effect of sublethal doses of chlordane on the haemocytes and midgut epithelium of P. americana. Annals of Entomological Society of America. 1968; 61(4):910-918. Available:https://doi.org/ 10.1093/aesa/61.4.910

Gupta AP. Identification key for haemocyte types in hanging droppreparations. In: Insect Haemocytes, (AP. Gupta, ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1979;227-229.

Ananda kumar M, Ann Sandhya Michael D. Haematology and Haemochemistry of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Infected with Bacillus thuringiensis. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2011; 2(2):451-457.

Toumanoff C. L'immunisationet la phagocytose chez les larvesd'abeilles. C. R. Soc. Biol. 1930;103:968-970.

Hollande AC. La digestion des bacillestuberculeuxpar lesleucocytes du sang des chenilles. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. 1973; 70:231-280.

Pathak JPN. Haemocyte mediated defence mechanism in Bombyx mori.Indian J Zool Spectrum. 1990;6(2):10-14.

Abir A. Gad, Nora N. Alzahofi. Changes in the haemocytes of Bombyx mori larvae (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in relation to Escherichia coli and Bacillus thuringensis infection. Changes in the haemocytes of Bombyx mori larvae (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in relation to Escherichia coli and Bacillus thuringensis infection. The Egyptian Science Magazine. 2010;6(1/2):15-21.

Sass M, Kiss A, Locke M. Integument and haemocyte peptides. J. Insect Physiol. 1994; 40:407-421.

Bora DS, Handique P. Effect of Catharanthus roseus on Haemocytes of Antheraea assama Ww. Journal of Environmental Biology; 2008.

Begum R, Gohain R, Hazarika LK. Detoxification of deltamethrin by the haemocytes of Philosamia ricini Boisd (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae); 1998.

Carlos Ribeiro, Nelson Simos, Michel Berlin. Insect immunity: The haemocytes of the armyworm Mythimna unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their role in defence reactions. In vivo and in vitro studies September 1996 Journal of Insect Physiology. 1996;42(9):815-822.

Nittono Y. Studies on the blood cells in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Buil. Serie. Esp. Stn. (Tokyo). 1986;16:171–266.

Jiang H, Wang Y, Ma C, Kanost MR. Subunit composition of pro- phenol oxidase from Manduca sexta: Molecular cloning of subunit ProPO- P1. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 1997;27(10):835–850.