Main Article Content
The present study has been conducted to understand the effect of sublethal concentration of phenol (96 LC50 – 10% SLC) on the biochemical composition of Indian major Cirrhinus mrigala for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days. The biochemical components carbohydrate, protein and lipids were measured both in control and experimental fish. During the exposure periods the biochemical constituents were decreased in the experimental fish with duration and concentration of phenol.
Gupta S, Dalela RC,Saxena PK. Effect of phenolic compounds on in vivo activity of transaminases in certain tissues of the fish of the fish Notopterusnotopterus. Environ. Res. 19836;32:8-13.
Kishino T,Kobayashi K. Relation between toxicity and accumulation ofchlorophenols at various pH, and their absorption mechanism in fish. Water Res. 1995;29:431-442.
Roche H,Bogẻ G.In vivo effects of phenolic compounds on blood parameters of a marine fish (Dicentrarchuslabrax). Comp. Biochem. Physiol., (C).2000;125:345-353.
Bolognesi C, Perrone E, Roggieri P,Sciutto A.Bioindicators in monitoring long term genotoxic impact of spill: Haven case study. Mar. Environ. Res: 2006;65:S287–S291.
Tsutsui T, Hayashi N, Maizumi H, Huff J,Barret JC. Benzene-catechol-, hydroquinone- and phenol-induced cell-transformation, gene mutation, chromosome aberrations, aneuploidy, sister chromatid exchanges and unscheduled DNA synthesis in Syrian hamster embryo cell. Mutat. Res. 1997;373:112-123.
Mukherjee D, Guha D, Kumar V.Chakrabarty S. Impairment of steroidogenesis and sexually mature Cyprinuscarpio by phenol and sulfide under laboratory conditions. Aquat. Toxicol. 1991;21:29-35.
Hori TSF, Avilez IM, Inoue LK,Moraes G. Metabolical changes induced by chronic phenol exposure in matrinxa˜ Bryconcephalus (teleostei: Characidae) juveniles. Comp Biochem. Physiol C: ToxicolPharmacol. 2006;143:67–72.
Saha NC, Bhunia F,Kaviraj A. Toxicity of phenol to fish and aquatic ecosystems. Bull. Environ.Contam.Toxicol. 1999;63:195–202.
Roe JH. The determination of sugar in blood and spinal fluid with anthronereagent. J. Biol. Chem. 1955;153:373-380.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL,Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 1951;193:265–275.
Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley. A simple method for isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 1957;226:497-507.
Pascoe D, Evans S,Woodworth J. Heavy metal toxicity to fish and the influence of water hardness. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1986;15:481-485.
Vutukuru SS. Acute effects of hexavalent chromiumonsurvival, oxygen consumption, Hematological parameters and some Biochemicals profiles of Indian major carp,Labeorohita. Int. J.Environ. Res. Public health. 2005;2(3):456-462.
Saravanan TS, Mohammed AM,Harikrishnan R. Studies on the chronic effects of endosulfan on blood and liver of Oreochromismossambicus. Journal of Ecological Research and Bioconservation. 2000;19(2):24-27.
Nimaichandra S, Trilochan M,Kumar NS. A Study on arsenic effects on blood and glucose concentration in a fish model. Indian Journal of Environment and Ecoplaning. 2005;10(2):499-503.
Neethirajan K,Madhavan S.Sumidon induced changes on some aspects of metabolism in the chosen tissues of fresh water cat fish, Mustusvittatus.Journal of Experimental Zoology, India. 2004;7(2):279-283.
RemyaVaradarajanHariSankar HS, Jisha Jose,Babu Philip.Sublethal effects of phenolic compounds on biochemical, histological and ionoregulatory parameters in a tropical teleost fish Oreochromismossambicus (Peters). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2004;14:1-12.
Venkataramana GV, Sandhya Rani PN,Murthy PS. Impact of Malathion on the biochemical parameters of gobiid fish, Glossogobiusgiuris (Ham). J. Environ.Biol. 2006;27:119-122.
Thenmozhi C, Vignesh V, Thirumurugan R, Arun S. Impacts of malathion on mortality and biochemical changes of freshwater fish Labeorohita. Iran. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng. 2011;8(4):387–394.
Veeraiah K, Srinivas Rao P, Symyuktha Rani A,Dhilleswarao H. Changes in biochemical parameters of freshwater fish Labeorohita exposed to lethaland sub-lethal concentrations of indoxacarb. Int. J. Bioassays. 2013;2(10):1382-1387.
Tripathi VK,Yadav R. Effect of pesticide (organophosphorus) on aquatic fish Labeorohita. Int. J. Chem. Sci. 2015;13(2):625-640.
Samuel Vinod Kumar, Little Flower Pascal, Samuel Tennyson, MuniyasamyPandeeswari, KalyanasundaramDhinamala, DeepaPersis, RajasinghRaveen, Subramanian Arivoli, Mohamed Meeran. Changes in the biochemical profile of Anabas testudineus(Bloch, 1792) on exposure to aquatic toxicants of Buckingham canal. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2018;6(4):81-86.
Waghmare SY,Wani GP. Effect of polo (an insecticide) on protein contents of liver and gonads of fresh water fish.Labeorohita. Int. Res. J. Pharm.2014;5(10):792-794.
Anitha A,VenkataRathnamma V. Toxicity evaluation and protein levels of fish Labeorohita exposed to pyraclostrobin 20% WG (carbamate). Int. J. Adv. Res. 2016;4(3):967-974.
Yadav V, Sharma S, Harjai K, Mohan H,Chhibber S. Induction and resolution of lobar pneumonia following intranasal instillation with Klebsiella pneumoniain mice. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2003;118:47-52.
Namrata S, SanjayN,Pallavi C. Effects of starvation on the biochemical composition of freshwater fish, Channapunctatus. Recent Research in Science and Technology. 2011;3(9):17-19.
Neff JM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment: Sources, fates and biological effects. Applied Science Publishers, London, UK; 1979.
Aszatalos B, Memcsok J, Brenedeczky I, Gabriel R, Szabo A, Refale OJ. The effects of pesticide on some biochemical parameters of carp (Cyprinuscarpio). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1990;19:275–282.
Chandravathy VM, Reddy SLN. In vivo recovery of protein metabolism in gill and brain of freshwater fish, Anabusscadensafter exposure to lead nitrate. J. Environ. Biol. 1994;15:75-82.
De Smet H,Blust R. Stress responses and changes inprotein metabolism in carp, Cyprinuscarpioduring cadmium exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2007;48:255-260.
Sivachandran R, Sultana M, Saravanan R,Malathy S. Tannery effluents induced DNA damage in liver and testicular tissues of fresh water fish, Channastriatus. Asian Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;5(7):427-430.
Jha BS,Jha MM. Biochemical effects of nickel chloride on the liver and gonads of the freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus(Bloch). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.India. 1995;65(B):39-46.
Jha BS. Alteration in the protein and lipid content of intestine, liver and gonads in the lead exposed freshwater fish Channapunctatus(Bloch). Indian Journal of Environment and Ecoplanning. 1991;2(3):281-284.
Gupta PK, Sastry KV. Effect of mercuric chloride on enzyme activities in the digestive system and chemical composition of liver and muscles of the cat fish, Heteropneusteusfossilis.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 1981;5(4):389-400.
Rao CS,Neeraja P. Effect of chronic ammonia stress on some aspects of protein metabolism of fish Tilapia mossambica. Indian Journal of Comparative Animal Physiology. 1990;8:69-73.
De Bruin A. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents. Elsevier, North Holland Biochemical press, New York, USA; 1976.
Das BK,Mukherjee MD. Toxicity of cypermethrin in Labeorohita fingerlings, biochemical enzymatic and haematological consequences. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2003;134:109–121.
Govindan VS, Jacob L, Devika R. Toxicity and metabolic changes in Gambusiaaffinisexposed to phosphamidon. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Monitoring. 1994;4(1): 1-6.