IMPACT OF Thelohanellus mrigalae TRIPATHI, 1952 ON Cirrhinus mrigala: PREVALENCE, HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND HAEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS

Main Article Content

SANJUKTA MANNA
SUDIPTA NASKAR

Abstract

Thelohanellus mrigalae Tripathi, 1952 is the important myxosporean parasites causing hemorrhagic thelohanellosis disease in Cirrhinus mrigala, a fresh water teleost. Infected fishes show profound swelling, formation of pus, cyst on gill filament and infiltration of pathogen into connective tissue. About 238 live specimens of Cirrhinus mrigala were examined and myxozoan parasite T. mrigalae were identified which implicates host specificity. Any significant infection was not observed in the sampling period of March-July, whereas prevalence of T. mrigalae was much higher in the period of November to February which is post-monsoon period in West Bengal. During monsoon, moderate infection was observed as rain water is the main factor for spreading spore. The plasmodia of T. mrigalae were located in the intrafilamental epithelial site of gill. The plasmodia were cylindrical and creamy-white patch and contained ellipsoidal spores as valvular shape. The spores were 20.4 – 22.1 (±6.34) μm in length and 8.5 – 10.2 (±0.87) μm in width. An oblong, irregularly shaped mass of protoplasm was observed between the polar capsule and spore capsule. The polar capsule was 10.2 – 13.5 (±0.05) μm in length and 3.4 – 4.25 (±0.5) μm in width containing a polar filament coiled perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the spore body. Histology of gill filaments showed a series of nodules of various sizes distorting the normal architecture of the gill cartilage. Distention of the gill filament was pronounced and lamellae adjacent to the cyst were no longer present. Necrotic lesions and hyperplasia were extensively observed in the gill filaments. Infected fish had lower RBC counts, higher WBC counts and more fragile erythrocytes than control fish.  Haemorrhaging was distinctly visible.  The increase in number of mucous goblet cells on the gill lamellae of infected fish enhance the diffusion distance between water and blood haemoglobin and rapidly impair Oxygen (O2) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange.

Keywords:
Myxosporean, plasmodia, polar capsule, polar filament, gill lamella, goblet cells

Article Details

How to Cite
MANNA, S., & NASKAR, S. (2021). IMPACT OF Thelohanellus mrigalae TRIPATHI, 1952 ON Cirrhinus mrigala: PREVALENCE, HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND HAEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 42(9), 41-49. Retrieved from https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2110
Section
Original Research Article

References

Kaur H, Singh R. Two new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting an Indian major carp and a cat fish in wetlands of Punjab, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2011;35(2):169–176.
DOI:10.1007/s12639-011-0061-4.

Abdel-Ghaffar F, Morsy K, Bashtar AR, El-Ganainy S, Gamal S. Thelohanellus niloticus sp. nov. (Myxozoa:Myxosporea), a parasite of the Nile carp Labeo niloticus from the River Nile, Egypt. Parasitology Research. 2013; 112:379–383. DOI:10.1007/s00436-012-3148-7.

Maharshi G. Development of Spore Protein of Myxobolus koi as an Immunostimulant for Prevent of Myxobolusis on Gold Fish (Cyprinus carpio Linn) by Oral Immunisation. 2nd International Conference on Tropical and Coastal Region Eco Development 2016. IOP Conf. Series:Earth and Environmental Science. 2017; 55:012009.
DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/55/1/012009.

Kudo R. A taxonomic consideration of myxosporidia. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society.1933;52:195-216. https://doi.org/10.2307/3222254

Zhang JY, Gu ZM, Kalavati C, Eiras JC, Liu Y, Guo QY, Molnar KA. Synopsis of the species of Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida). Systematic Parasitology. 2013; 86:235–256.
DOI :10.1007/s11230-013-9449-0.

Yokoyama H, Kiyanage YS, Sugai A, Wakabayashi H. Hemorrhagic thelohanellosis of color carp caused by Thelohanelllus hovorkai (Myxozoa: Myxosporea). Fish Pathology. 1998; 33:85–89.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3147/jsfp.33.85

Akhmerov AKH. Myxosporidia of fishes from the Amur River basin. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo Vnutrennykh Vodoemov Latvijskoi SSR. 1960;5, 240–307 (In Russian).

Basu S, Modak BK, Haldar DP. Synopsis of the Indian species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 along with description of Thelohanellus disporomorphus sp.n. Journal of Parasitology and Applied Animal Biology. 2006;15 (1&2):81 - 94.

Pagarkar AU, Das M. Two new species of myxozoa, Thelohanellus caudatus n. sp., and Myxobolus serrata n. sp., from the cultural carps. Journal of Inland Fisheries Society of India.1993;25:30–35.

Basu S, Haldar DP. Observations on two new thelohanellid species (Myxozoa:Bivalvulida) from Indian major carps of West Bengal, India. Journal of Parasitology and Applied Animal Biology. 2003; 12:15–24.

Acharya S, Dutta T. Thelohanellus habibpuri sp. n. (Myxozoa:Bivalvulida) from the tropical freshwater fish rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1882) in West Bengal, India:Light and electron microscope observations. Animal Biology. 2007; 57:293–300.

Singh R, Kaur H. Biodiversity of myxozoan parasites infecting freshwater fishes of three main wetlands of Punjab, India. Protistology. 2012a; 7:79–89.

Singh R, Kaur H. Thelohanellus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infections in major carp fish from Punjab wetlands (India). Protistology. 2012b; 7:178–188.

Qadri SS. On a new myxosporidian Thelohaenellus shortti n. sp., from the freshwater fish, Labeo fimbriatus of Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Protozoology. 1967; 11:207–218

Lalitha Kumari PS. Studies on parasitic protozoa (Myxosporidia) of fresh water fishes of Andhra Pradesh, India. Rivista di Parassitologia. 1969; 30:153–226.

Lom J, Dykova I. Myxozoan genera:definition and notes on taxonomy, life cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia Parasitologica. 2006; 53:1-36. https://doi.org/10.14411/fp.2006.001.

Pritchard MH, Kruse GO. The collection and preservation of animal parasites. (Tech. Bull. 1). University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln), Nebraska, 1982. pp. 141.

Secretaría de Pesca. Proyecto de Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM020-PESC-1993, que acredita las técnicas para la identificación de agentes patógenos causales de enfermedad en los organismos acuáticos vivos cultivados, silvestres y de ornato en México. Diario Oficial 7 Diciembre (Primera Sección), México.1994.

Hoffman GL. Parasites of North American freshwater fishes. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 1999;539.

Margolis L, Esch GW, Holmer JC, Kuris AM, Schad GA. The use of ecological terms in parasitology. Journal of Parasitology. 1982; 68:131-133.

Feist SW, Longswhaw M. Phylum Myxozoa. In:P.T.L. Woo (ed.). Fish diseases and disorders: Protozoan and metazoan infections. Cabi, Oxfordshire. 2006; 1:230- 296.

Stevens A. The Haematoxylins. In Bancroft, John; Stevens, Alan (eds.). The Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques (2nd ed.). Longman Group Limited.1982;109.

Jin C, Padra JT, Sundell K, Sundh H, Karlsson NG, Linden SK. Atlantic Salmon Carries a Range of Novel O-Glycan Structures Differentially Localized on Skin and Intestinal Mucins. Journal of Proteome Research. 2015; 14:3239–3251.

Mukherjee D, Soni M, Sanyal KB and Dash G. Prevalence of ectoparasitic infestation in Indian major carps during winter at different blocks of South 24-Parganas District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Fisheries Science. 2019; 1(1):7-14.

Valdenegro-Vega VA, Crosbie P, Bridle A, Leef M, Wilson R, Nowak BF. Differentially expressed proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affected by amoebic gill disease. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014; 40:69–77.

Benktander J, Padra JT, Maynard B, Birchenough G, Botwright NA, McCulloch R, Wynne JW, Sharba S, Sundell K, Sundh H, Lindén SK. Gill mucus and gill mucin O-glycosylation in healthy and amebic gill disease-affected atlantic salmon. Microorganisms. 2020; 8:1871.
DOI:10.3390/microorganisms8121871

Jones R, Baskerville A, Reid L. Histochemical identification of glycoproteins in pig bronchial epithelium:(a) normal and (b) hypertrophied from enzootic pneumonia. Journal of Pathology. 1975; II (6): I--II.

Powell MD, Ransome J, Barney M, Duijf RMM, Flik G. Effect of Dietary Inclusion of N-Acetyl Cysteine on Mucus Viscosity and Susceptibility of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, to Amoebic Gill Disease. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 2007; 38:435–442.

Fernandes MN, Perna SA, Moron SE. Chloride cell apical surface changes in gill epithelia of the armoured catfish Hypostomus plecostomus during exposure to distilled water. Journal of Fish Biology. 1998; 52:844–849.

Powell MD, Perry SF. Respiratory and acid –base disturbances in rainbow trout blood during exposure to chloramine-T under hypoxia and hyperoxia. Journal of Fish Biology. 1997; 50:418–428.

Martins ML, Mouriño JLP, Amaral GV, Vieira FN, Dotta G, Jatobá, AMB, Pedrotti FS, Jerônimo GT, Buglione-Neto CC, Pereira-Jr G. Haematological changes in Nile tilapia experimentally infected with Enterococcus sp. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2008;68(3):657-661.