NANOPARTICLES TOXICITY IN FISHES
Issue: 2022 - Volume 43 [Issue 9]
DEVDATTA LAD *
Department of Zoology, Wilson College, Mumbai-400007, India.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanoparticles have a size between 1 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles have applications in the production of agrifood, biomedical products, fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, sensors, food processing, food packaging, nutraceuticals, diagnosis, drug delivery and treatment of diseases. Nanoparticles easily enter the environment unimpeded, entering soil, water and air through various anthropogenic activities. In water, fishes quickly ingest or inhale these nanoparticles. Due to their small size, nanoparticles easily enter the body and affect various tissues, and they also easily cross the blood-brain barrier. This results in different toxic effects on the fishes, an essential part of our ecosystem. Studies and research on fishes have revealed that various nanoparticles damage the gills, liver, intestine, brain, and enzyme system of fishes. They also lead to decreased heart rate, curvatures of the axis, delayed or early hatching, osmoregulatory failure, and genotoxic effects in fishes. Cerium oxide nanoparticles induced fish mortality in Rainbow trout at an initial concentration of 10 \(\mu\)g/L in tap and green waters. Studies on cell lines of various fish species such as rainbow trout, fathead minnow, zebrafish, goldfish, and haddock have proved that Silica nanoparticles are toxic to their epithelial tissues of skin and gills. These findings agree with similar human and mouse cell studies reported to date. If the nanoparticles accumulate in the fish tissue and the same fishes are consumed by the organisms from other trophic levels, the nanoparticles accumulate, leading to biomagnification. The release of nanoparticles in the environment must be checked and reduced. And further detailed research needs to be carried out on the effects of nanoparticles in fishes, humans, and other animals.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, fishes, silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles