Published: 2022-07-15

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i133089

Page: 80-87


Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Govt. P.G. College, Sitapur – 261125, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Department of Zoology, K.S. Saket P.G. College, Ayodhya – 224123, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Department of Environmental Science, Integral University, Lucknow-226026, Uttar Pradesh, India.


P. G. Department of Zoology, B.S.N.V.P.G. College, Lucknow- 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India.


P. G. Department of Zoology, B.S.N.V.P.G. College, Lucknow- 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India.


P. G. Department of Zoology, B.S.N.V.P.G. College, Lucknow- 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Lead (Pb), a non-essential “Grey listed” heavy metal is a serious threat to aquatic flora and fauna. The haematological, nephrological, histopathological and neurological effects of lead are well known in vertebrates. Present study aims to investigate effect of lead on morphology of haemocytes, a important component of immune system of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum. Prawns, collected at “Gulala-Ghat” from river Gomti, Lucknow, subjected to acute and sub-acute concentrations of lead nitrate (116.46 mg/l, 96h LC50; 29.12 mg/l, 25% of 96h LC50) showed morphological changes in haemocytes after 24, 48, 72 and 96h in acute exposure and after 10, 20 and 30 days in sub-acute exposure. The chief morphological changes like surface blebbing, vacuolization, cytoplasmic darkening, fragmentation of nuclear material, cone formation, nuclear pycnosis and breaking of plasma membrane were noticed after acute exposure (116.46 mg/litre). Black granular depositions, nuclear pycnosis and fragmentation of nuclear material; pseudopodial projections, blackening of the plasma membrane, achromatia were observed after sub-acute exposure (29.12 mg/litre). These changes were pronounced in prohaemocytes, granulocytes, plasmatocytes and spindle cells. The severity of morphological changes was dose- and duration-dependent. The present study found a positive correlation between heavy metal lead exposure and morphological changes in haemocyte morphology leading to severe immune dysfunction in freshwater prawn M. dayanum. This parameter can be used as bio-marker in health monitoring of prawns as well as environmental monitoring without sacrificing the animal.  

Keywords: Freshwater prawn, haemocyte morphology, lead toxicity, Macrobrachium dayanum

How to Cite

TIWARI, K. J., LODHI, H. S., MISHRA, A., AHMAD, A., LODHI, S., & SHUKLA, S. (2022). EFFECT OF LEAD NITRATE ON HAEMOCYTE MORPHOLOGY OF FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium dayanum (CRUSTACEA-DECAPODA). UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 43(13), 80–87. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i133089


Download data is not yet available.


Jarup L. Hazard of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 2003;68:167-182.

DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldg032.

Burman SC & Lal M. Studied the potential and properties of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd & Pb) in soil and industrially polluted fields. J. Environ. Biol. 1994;15:107-115.

Mason CF. Biology of freshwater pollution, 3rd edition, Longman, U.K. 1996; 1-4.

Devi M & Fingerman M. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the central nervous system of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, by mercury, cadmium and lead. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1995; 55: 746-750.

DOI: 10.1007/BF00203762.

Sarah R, Tabassum B, Idrees N, Hashem A & Abd_Allah EF. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Channa punctatus (Bloch) in river Ramganga (U.P.), India. Saudi J. of Biol. Sci. 2019; 26(5),979-984.

Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.02.009

Kutlu M & Sumer S. Effects of lead on the activity of S-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in Gammarus pulex. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1998;60:816-821.

Kapila M & Ragothaman G. Effect of mercury, copper and cadmium on the red blood cells of Boleophthalmus dussumieri (CUV). Poll. Res. 1999;18(2):149-152.

Roy AH, Rosemond AD, Paul MJ, Leigh DS & Wallace JB. Stream macroinvertebrate response to catchment urbanisation (Georgia, USA). Freshwater Biol. 2003;48:329-346.

Mobarak YMS & Sharaf MM. Lead Acetate-induced Histopathological Changes in the Gills and Digestive System of Silver Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna). Inter. J. of Zool. Resea. 2011;7:1-18.

DOI: 10.3923/ijzr.2011.1.18

Kumar M & Ram M. Toxicity of some heavy metals on blood characteristics of freshwater fish Clarias batrachus. Inter. J. of Fisher. and Aqua. Stud. 2016;4(1):85-89.

Kumar M, Kumar D & Kumar R. Effect of heavy metals cadmium, lead and copper on the blood characteristics of fresh water catfish Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 2017;4(1):129-134.


Sminia T, & Knaap WPWV. Immunorecognition in invertebrates with special reference to molluscs, In: M. Brehélin (ed.), Immunity in invertebrates, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 1986:112-124.

Mohandas N, Winardi R, Knowles D, Leung A, Parra M, George E, Conboy J & Chasis J. Molecular basis for membrane rigidity of hereditary ovalocytosis: A novel mechanism involving the cytoplasmic domain of band 3(Article)(Open Access). J. of Clinical Investiga. 1992;89( 2):686-692.

Lodhi HS. Studies on haemocytes and haemolymph of fresh water prawns of Lucknow with special reference to effects of heavy metal. 2002; Ph.D. Thesis, Lucknow University, Lucknow.

Khan M A. Effect of heavy metals on fresh water crustaceans. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lucknow, Lucknow; 2005.

Tiwari KJ, Lodhi HS, Tripathi R, Shukla S & Sharma UD. Effects of lead on heart beat rate of freshwater prawn, Machrobrachium dayanum (Crustacea-Decapoda). Environ. & Ecol. 2008;26(2):807-810.

Sarkar I, Basu A, Dutta S, & Roy S. Male mating tactics and mating activity in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Henderson, 1893) Paleomonidae: Caridae. Int. J. Aquat. Sci. 2012b; 3: 56-70.

Bakhtiyar Y, Lakhnotra R & Langer S. Natural food and feeding habits of a locally available freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Henderson) from Jammu waters, North India. Inter. J. of Fisheri. and Aqua. Studi. 2014;2(3):33-38.

Shukla S, Tiwari KJ, Lodhi HS, Shukla S, Mishra A & Sharma UD. Histopathological alterations in gills of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Crustacea -Decapoda) after acute and sub-acute exposure of lead nitrate. J. Appl. Nat. Sci. 2019;11(02):568-574.


Shukla S & Sharma UD. Smaller fresh water prawns: Their aquaculture potential and suitability as good laboratory model In: Bioresources for food security and rural livelihood Edited by:Kulkarni G.K.and Pandey P.N. 2010; 189-204 Delhi: Narendra Publications isbn:8131300439.

Tripathi R & Pandey AK. Alterations in behaviour, scaphognathite oscillation and Heart beat rate of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Crustacea: Decapoda), induced by cadmium chloride exposure. J. Exp. Zool. 2014;17(1):155-164.

Kant KR, Gupta K, Langer S & Angral C. Studies on ovarian development of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum (Henderson). Inter. J. Fauna and Biol. Stud. 2016;3(1):117-120.

Lodhi HS & Shukla S. Morphological and histochemical characterization of haemocytes of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Crustacea-Decapoda). Uttar Pradesh J. Zoology. 2020;41(10):109-120.

APHA. Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste waters. 1998; 20th Edn. APHA, AWWA and WEF, Washington DC.

Hamilton MA, Russo R & Thurston RV. Trimmed Spearman-Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassay. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1977; 11: 714.

Available: https://doi.org/10.1021/es60130a004

Sharma UD. Morphological, histochemical and physiological studies on haemocytes of some arthropods. 1976; Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, (India).

Ravindranath MH. The individuality of plasmatocytes and granular hemocytes of arthropods - A review. Develop. & Compa. Immuno. 1978; 2(4): 581-594.

Available: doi.org/10.1016/S0145-305X(78)80085-8.

Hardy WB. The blood corpuscles of the crustacean, together with a suggestion as to the origin of the crustacean fibrin-ferment. J. Physiol. 1892;13:165-190.


Fischer AH, Jacobson KA, Rose J & Zeller R. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of tissue and cell sections. CSH Protoc. 2008; PMID: 21356829 DOI: 10.1101/pdb.prot4986.

Gajendra S, Jha B, Goel S, Sahni T, Sharma R, Shariq M, Jaiswal S & Sachdev R. Leishman and Giemsa stain: a new reliable staining technique for blood/bone marrow smears. Int. J. Lab. Hematol. 2015;6:774- 782.

Anderson DT. The larval development of Dacus tryonire (Frogg.) (Diptera: Trypetidae): I larval instars, imaginal discs and haemocytes. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 1963; II.202-218.

Anderson DT. The development of hemimetabolous insects In: Development system of insects vol. I (ed. S.J. Cource & C.H. Waddington). Academic Press, New York. 1972; 95-163.

Xylander WER. Physico-chemical properties of haemolymph of Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda, Arthropoda): protein content, pH, osmolarity. Soil Organis. 2009; 81(3), 431-439.

Banslal SK, Verma SR, Gupta AK & Dalela RC. Physiological disruption of the haematopiotic system in a fresh water teleost Labeo rohita following chronic chlardon exposure. Part 1: Alternations in certain haematological parameters. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1979;22:666-673.

DOI: 10.1007/BF02027005

Olmedo P, Pla A, Hernández AF, Barbier F, Ayouni L & Gil F. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers., Environ. Internatio. 2013;59:63-72.


Muthusami S & Ramesh M. The Effect of Lead on Haemocyte Count of the Freshwater Teleost Catla Catla. Transactions on Engineering and Sciences. 2014; 2(5), 18-20.

Afshan S, Ali S, Shaista U, Ameen, Farid M, Aslam S, Bharwana, Hannan F & Ahmad R. Effect of Different Heavy Metal Pollution on Fish. Res. J.Chem.Environ.Sci. 2014; 2(1),74-79. www.aelsindia.com/rjces.htm

Authman MMN, Zaki MS, Khallaf EA & Abbas HH. Use of Fish as Bio-indicator of the Effects of Heavy Metals Pollution. J. Aquac. Res. Developmen. 2015;6(4):1-13.


Venkateswarlu V & Venkatrayulu C. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal lead (Pb) in different tissues of brackish water fish Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758). J. of Appli. Biol. and Biotechno. 2020;8(2):1-5. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2020.80201

Lodhi HS, Tiwari KJ, Shukla S & Sharma UD. Copper sulphate induced fluctuations in total haemocyte counts (THCs) of freshwater prawn, Macrobranchium lamarrei (Crustacea - Decapoda). J. Env. Bio-sci. 2008a; 22(2), 135-142.

Vallee BL & Ulmer DD. Biochemical effects of mercury, cadmium, and lead. United States: 1972., Web.


Bianchi V, Buttigant M & Levis AG. Specific effects of Cr4+ on nucleic acid synthesis & nucleoside up take in hamster cells (BHK line). Atti Assoc. Genet. Ital. 1977; 22: 65-73.

Bianchi V, Toso RD, Deaetto P, Levis AG, Tamino G. Mechanism of chromium toxicity in mammalian cell culture. Toxicol. 1980; 17: 219-224.

DOI: 10.1016/0300-483x(80)90097-9.

Gaur R, Mishra L & Gupta SKS. (2014). Diffusion and Transport of Molecules

In Living Cells. 27-49. S.K. Basu, Naveen Kumar (eds.), Modelling and Simulation of Diffusive Processes, Simulation Foundations, Methods and Applications Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-05657-9_2,

Soderhall VK & Smith J. Separation of the haemocyte populations of Carcinus maenas and other marine decapods, and prophenoloxidase distribution. Developmental & Comparative Immunology. 1983; 7(2), 229-239.

Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-305X(83)90004-6

Lorenzon S, Francese M, Smith V & Ferrero EA. Heavy metals affect the circulating haemocyte number in the shrimp Palaemon elegans. Fish & Shellfish Immunol. 2001;11(6),459-472. DOI:10.1006/fsim.2000.0321

Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB & Beeregowda K N. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2014; 7(2): 60–72.

DOI: 10.2478/intox-2014-0009

Gill TS & Pant JC. Mercury induced blood abnormalities in the fresh water teleost. Water, Air, Soil, Pollut. 1985a; 24: 165-171.

Gill TS & Pant JC. Erythrocytic and leucocytic response to cadmium poisoning in fresh water fish Puntius conchonius. Environ. Res. 1985b; 36: 327-337.


Park K & Kwak IS. Ribosomal protein S3 gene expression of Chironomus

riparius under cadmium, copper and lead stress. J. of Toxicol. Environ. Heal. Sci. 2011; 3(13), 347-355.

DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS11.078

Chopra AK & Pathak C. Bioaccumulation and Translocation Efficiency of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Grown on Long-Term Wastewater Irrigated Soil Near Bindal River, Dehradun. Agric Res. 2012; 1(2):157–164.

DOI 10.1007/s40003-012-0016-8

Knöppel A, Andersson DI & Näsvall J. Synonymous Mutations in rpsT Lead to Ribosomal Assembly Defects That Can Be Compensated by Mutations in fis and rpoA. Front. Microbiol; 2020.

Available: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00340

Lodhi HS, Tiwari KJ, Shukla S & Sharma UD. Alternations in total haemocyte counts (THCs) of freshwater prawn, Macrobranchium dayanum (Crustacea - Decapoda) after Copper sulphate exposure. J. Adv. Zool. 2008b; 29(2):92-98.