Effect of Cigarette Smoke on the Developing Embryo: Chick as an Animal Model

Mamata R. Chandrakar *

Department of Zoology, Jankidevi Bajaj College of Science, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Gajendrasingh Pachlore

Department of Zoology, Vinayak Vidnyan Mahavidyalaya, Nandgaon(kh), India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Tobacco has been widely used for chewing and smoking and Nicotine is the major component of the tobacco. Nicotine can enter via many ways.It has been noted that maternal exposure of Nicotine by direct or indirect way has been increased now a days. Studies designated that in United States 12.7% women smoke during pregnancy, and a noteworthy proportion of population has been exposed to maternal smoking in utero.

The early chick embryo is an established model of the first month of embryonic development in mammals.

Effects of Nicotine on the growth and development of the embryo in utero has been studied using an embryonic chick as an experimental animal model. Experimental embryos were exposed with cigarette smoke. The eggs were incubated at 37ºC for 4,8,12 and 16 days respectively. Body weight, size of head, size of the trunk, complete body size as well as protein at the Tissue level also glucose and Cholesterol has been studied after the mentioned days of incubation. It has been noted that nicotine exposure caused alterations in all the parameters studied. From the results it has been concluded that the Nicotine exposure goes on accumulating and it leads into the death of the embryos after 12th day of incubation.

Keywords: Chick embryo, cholesterol, glucose, protein, nicotine, size, weight

How to Cite

Chandrakar, M. R., & Pachlore, G. (2023). Effect of Cigarette Smoke on the Developing Embryo: Chick as an Animal Model. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(3), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i33413


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