Analysis of Avian Diversity at Chintamoni Kar Bird Sanctuary: An Urban Forest Perspective

Somdipta Sen

Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), 30 Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Aritra Biswas

Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), 30 Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Aniruddha Banerji *

Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), 30 Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Chintamoni Kar Bird Sanctuary (CKBS) is an urban forest located on the southern fringes of Kolkata. The objective of our study was to document and analyze the diversity of the avian population in CKBS. The line transect method was used and avian diversity, species richness and evenness were analyzed using Shannon Diversity Index, Shannon Equitability Index, relative diversity and relative abundance. Our study recorded 37 bird species belonging to 9 orders and 23 families with most species being recorded from Order Passeriformes followed by Piciformes and Ciconiiformes. The species were well distributed across a number of avian families. Birds rare in metropolises like the Oriental white eye (Zosterops palpebrosus) were also recorded here. Analysis of relative abundances showed that many species comparatively rare in cities like the common tailor bird (Orthotomus sutorius) and white throated fantail (Rhipidura albicollis) showed an abundance similar to more commonly seen species. Values of 2.844 and 0.788 were obtained for Shannon Diversity Index and Shannon Equitability Index indicating high species diversity and evenness. However, high species diversity is not due to assemblage of migratory birds in winter. Species diversity and evenness are highest during the summer months (Shannon Diversity Index = 2.862; Shannon Equitability Index = 0.812) which could be due to dense forest cover, a large number of fruit bearing trees and many water bodies in the sanctuary which provide a favourable habitat for birds in hot weather. Our study indicates that a number of birds appear to be thriving as a stable avian community at CKBS and this urban forest acts as a haven for bird species otherwise rare in Kolkata, further emphasizing the need for taking necessary conservation measures for protection for this urban forest under the strained environmental conditions prevalent in urban metropolises.

Keywords: Chintamoni Kar Bird Sanctuary, urban forest, birds, relative abundance, species evenness, species diversity

How to Cite

Sen , S., Biswas , A., & Banerji , A. (2023). Analysis of Avian Diversity at Chintamoni Kar Bird Sanctuary: An Urban Forest Perspective. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(12), 7–15.


Download data is not yet available.


Barrowclough GF, Cracraft J, Klicka J, Zink RM. How many kinds of birds are there and why does it matter? PLoS One. 2016;11:e0166307.

Chapman JL, Reiss MJ. Ecology principles and applications. Cambridge University Press; 2000.

Canterbury GE, Martin TE, Petit DR, Petit LJ, Bradford DF. Bird communities and habitat as ecological indicators of forest condition in regional monitoring. Conservation Biology. 2000;14:544–558.

Mekonen S. Birds as biodiversity and environmental indicator. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2017;7.

Fraixedas S, Lindén A, Piha M, Cabeza M, Gregory R, Lehikoinen A. A state-of-the-art review on birds as indicators of biodiversity: Advances, challenges, and future directions. Ecological Indicators. 2020;118:106728.

Myczko L, Rosin ZM, Skórka P, Tryjanowski P. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance. PLoS One. 2014;9:e94218.

Partecke J, Van't Hof T, Gwinner E. Differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest European blackbirds (Turdus merula): result of phenotypic flexibility or genetic differences? Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:1995-2001.

Government of West Bengal, Directorate of Forests, Wildlife Wing.

Avaialable: Accessed in March 2023.

Roy Bhowmick S. Study of the factors and degree of association between varying population of bird species and their microhabitat. International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology. 2019;7:21-27.

Dasgupta S, Dasgupta P. Study of avifaunal diversity and seasonal variation in chintamoni kar bird sanctuary. International Journal of Scientific Development and Research. 2022;7:325-330.

Mitra B, Basu Roy A, Das A, Shah SK, Baidya S, Roy Chaudhury D, Mukherjee D, Panja B. Insect faunal diversity of Chintamani Kar Bird Sanctuary and other protected areas of West Bengal. International Journal of Entomology Research. 2018;3:180-189.

Google Maps. Available: Accessed January 2023.

Ali S. The Book of Indian Birds (13th ed.). Bombay Natural History Society & Oxford University Press, India; 2002.

Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. Birds of Indian Subcontinent (2nd ed.). Oxford; 2011.

Chakraborty A, Barman H, Saha GK, Aditya G. Wintering waterbird assemblage in an emerging wetland of West Bengal, India: characterization for conservation management. Ornis Hungarica. 2021;29: 1-19.

Krebs CJ. Ecology: The experimental analysis of distribution and abundance (6th ed.). Pearson India Education Services Pvt. Ltd., India; 2017.

Available: Accessed April 2023.

Global Forest Watch. Available: Accessed December 2022.

Indiastat. Available: Accessed April 2023.