Diversity of Storage Insect Pests of Maize (Zea mays L.), their Damage and Losses Causes to Maize in Gabilay District, Somaliland


Published: 2023-08-21

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i183609

Page: 78-85

Jamaal Barre

College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Hargeisa, Hargeisa, Somalia.

Abaynew Jemal Jenber *

Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Maize is one of the foremost cereals cultivated today, and it is a queen of cereals. Maize is threatened by a wide range of post-harvest insect pests. Therefore, a survey was conducted in Gabilay District, Somaliland in 2021 to determine the status of storage pests. During the survey a total of 60 maize storage structures were assessed in three villages of Gabilay District namely; Galloley, Ijaara, and Boqor. Data on storage structures, infestation status, grain damage, and weight loss were collected and analyzed by SPPS version 20 and interpreted using descriptive statistics. The result showed that a locally constructed bit was the major storage structure followed by sacks while iron tank is used at the lowest level. Results found also indicated that all storage structures were infested by two major insect pests, i.e., Maize weevil (S. zeamais) and Angoumois grain moth (S. cerealella) at the highest level and by molds and rats to a lesser extent. Galloley site was infested only by maize weevil, while Boqor and Ijaara sites were infested by both maize weevil and angoumois grain moth. Maize weevil accounted for the lion's share of the infestation compared to angoumois grain moth. The highest grain damage was recorded at the bottom position of the storage structure from the Ijaara area followed by Galloley and Boqor. Likewise, grain weight loss was also highest at the bottom position that showed 12.0%. These findings provide benchmark information for developing sustainable management methods for the storage of insect pests of maize in the study area. It is also recommended training on storage methods, management of storage pests and healthy maize preparation should be practiced.

Keywords: Grain damage, infestation, maize, storage pests, weevils, weight loss

How to Cite

Barre, J., & Jenber, A. J. (2023). Diversity of Storage Insect Pests of Maize (Zea mays L.), their Damage and Losses Causes to Maize in Gabilay District, Somaliland. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(18), 78–85. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i183609


Download data is not yet available.


FAO. Agricultural Production. [Online]; 2011. Available :http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx. Accessed 14 April.

Manandhar DN, Ransom JK, Rajbhandari NP. Developing and disseminating technology to reduce postharvest losses in maize – Proceedings of a working group meeting of the hill maize research project. Kathmandu: NARC and CIMMYT; 2001.

Buckler ES, IV, Holtsford TP. Zea systematics: ribosomal ITS evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 1996;13:612-622.

USAID. United States Agency on International Development, Market Assessment and Baseline Study of Staple Foods, Country Report-Uganda. USAID; 2010. Available on Accessed on 11thJune, 2016.

Yaouba A, Tatsadjieu N, Jazet DPM, Mbofung CM.. Inhibition of fungal development in maize grains under storage condition by essential oils, International Journal of Bioscience. 2012;2(6):41-48.

FAO. World Food and Agriculture - Statistical Yearbook 2021. Rome; 2021.Available: https://doi.org/10.4060/cb4477en

FAO. World Food and Agriculture, Statistical Pocket Book. Rome; 2018.

FAOSTAT F. Agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2011. FAO; 2015.

Available: http://faostat3. Fao. Org/faostat-gateway/go/tdownload/Q/QC/S. Acceso20.

Tadele Tefera, Mugo S, Tende R, Likhayo P. Mass rearing of stem borers, maize weevil, and larger grain borer insect pests of maize. CIMMYT: Nairobi. 2010;57.

Nwosu LC, Onekutu A, Onyeje O. Efficacy of bone charcoal dust of six mammalian species as eco – friendly alternatives to conventional synthetic insecticides in the control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting stored resistant and susceptible maize cultivars. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Science. 2015;12 (1):311-320.

Ileke KD, Idoko JE, Ojo DO, Adesina BC. Evaluation of botanical powders and extracts from Nigerian plants as protectants of maize grains against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2020; 27:10-17.

Mukhtar Daahir. Occurrence and management of covered kernel smut (Sporisorium sorghi) disease of sorghum in Gabilay District in Somaliland. MSc Thesis, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. 2020;36.

Suleiman RA, Rosentrater KA. Current maize production, postharvest losses and the risk of mycotoxins contamination in Tanzania. In Agricultural and Bio systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations. 2015;127

MoA (Somaliland, Ministry of Agriculture). Report, Somaliland Ministry of Agriculture, Annual report of agricultural production in Somaliland. March. Unpublished. 2017;4.

Kamanula J, Sileshi GW, Belmain SR, Sola P, Mvumi BM, Nyirenda GKC, Nyirenda SP, Stevenson PC. Farmers’ insect pest management practices and pesticidal plant use in the protection of stored maize and beans in Southern Africa. International Journal of Pest Management . 2011;57:41–49.

Weston PA, Rattlingourd PL. Progeny production by Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) on maize previously infested by Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Journal of Ecological Entomology. 2000;93(2):533-536.

Yamane T. Statistics an Introductory Analysis. 2nd Edition, New York, Harper and Row; 1967.

Utono IM. Assessment of grain loss due to insect pest during storage for small-scale farmers of Kebbi. IOSR J. Agric. Vet. Sci. 2013;3(5):38–50.

Fekadu L, Geremew B, Waktola W. Quality of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench stored in traditional underground pits: Case studies in two agro-climatic zones in Hararghe, Ethiopia. Journal of food Science and Technology. 2000;37:238-244.

Wambugu PW, Mathenge EO, Auma, Havan R. Efficacy of traditional maize (Zea mays L.) seed storage methods in western Kenya. African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2009;9:1110-1128.

Gwinner J, Harnisch R, Muck O. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses: post-harvest project, FRG, Germany. 1996;334.

Mohamed Taharo. Post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables at Gobonimo market at Hargeisa District in Somaliland. BSc, New Generation University Collage, Somaliland. 2020;44.

BZDOA. Bahir Dar Zuria District Office of Agriculture, Annual report, unpublished; 2019.

Shabani I, Kimanya ME, Gichuhi PN, Bonsi C, Bovell-Benjamin AC. Maize Storage and Consumption Practices of Farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania: Corollaries for Mycotoxin Contamination. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015;5:330-339.


Tadeos S. Occurrence of Stored Grain Insect Pests in Traditional Underground Pit Grain Storages of Eastern Ethiopia. 2017;7(21):2224-3208.

Adane Tesfaye, Abaynew Jemal Jenber & Melesech Mintesnot. Survey of storage insect pests and management of rice weevil, Sitophilusoryzae, using botanicals on sorghum (Sorghumbicolor L.) at Jawi District, North western Ethiopia, Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection; 2021. DOI: 10.1080/03235408.2021.1970976

Semple RL, Hicks PA, Lozare JV, Castermans A. Towards integrated commodity and pest management in grain storage. Quezon City: National Post-Harvest Institute for Research and Extension (NAPHIRE), Department of Agriculture, Philippines. 1992;300–526.

Mihale MJ, Deng AL, Selemani HO, Kamatenesi MM, Kidukuli AW, Ogendo JO. Use of indigenous knowledge in the management of field and storage pests around Lake Victoria basin in Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2009;3:9.

Boxall RA. Damage and loss caused by the larger grain borer prostephanus truncates. Integrated Pest Management Reviews. 2002;7:105-121.

Bushra S, Aslam M. Management of Sitotroga cerealella in stored cereal grains: a review. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect. 2014;47(19):2365–2376.

Thamaga-Chitja JM, Hendriks SL, Ortmann GF, Green M. Impact of maize storage on rural household food security in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences. 2004;32:8-15.

Suleiman M, Rugumamu CP. Management of insect pests of stored sorghum using botanicals in Nigerian traditional stores. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research. 2017;8:93-102.

Meissle M, Mouron P, Musa T, Bigler F, Pons X, Vasileiadis V et al. Pests, pesticide use and alternative options in European maize production: current status and prospects. J. Appl. Entomol. 2010; 134:357-375.