Insectivorous Birds: Tharangambadi Seashore and Adjoined Places as the Potential for Feed


Published: 2023-09-05

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i193629

Page: 153-162

Sivakumar Subramaniyan

Department of Zoology, T.B.M.L. College (Affiliated with Bharathidasan University, Thiruchirapalli), Porayar- 609 307, Tamil Nadu, India.

Thomas Nithiyanandam Ganesan *

Department of Zoology, T.B.M.L. College (Affiliated with Bharathidasan University, Thiruchirapalli), Porayar- 609 307, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The birds which are forage in wetlands are likely to be insectivores. Due to the course of the life cycle of insects, the birds have an enormous amount of feed for their survival. The study revealed that, diversity and distribution of birds in relation to the insect diversity in Tharangambadi Sea shores, Mayiladuthurai District, Tamil Nadu from January 2017 to December 2017. The total count method was employed for the observation of birds. Collection of the insect by the scooping nets in the aquatic environment and quartets in the terrestrial environment was used. The results showed that 56 species of birds were encountered from 14 orders. Among the 56 species of birds, insectivores (41%) dominated followed by carnivore (20%), piscivore (14%), omnivore (11%), granivore (9%), frugivore (3%) and nectivores (2%). The insectivorous bird's species richness was high in the season post-monsoon (23) followed by Monsoon (22), pre-monsoon (20), and summer (19). The abundance was high during the post-monsoon (797) followed by monsoon (756), pre-monsoon (372), and summer (279) (F= 4.059; p<0.01). Simultaneously, the insect species richness was high during the season of post-monsoon, monsoon, pre-monsoon (19), and summer (18). The abundance was high during the post-monsoon (545) followed by monsoon (430), pre-monsoon (399), and summer (377) (F=0.5647; p>0.01). The insects and insectivorous birds' species richness and abundance were correlated positively. It concluded that insectivorous avian diversity and abundance were high during the insects’ abundance and diversity. Therefore, the Tharagambadi seashore is a potential habitat for insectivorous birds.

Keywords: Diversity, insectivores, Tharagambadi, seashore, birds

How to Cite

Subramaniyan , S., & Ganesan , T. N. (2023). Insectivorous Birds: Tharangambadi Seashore and Adjoined Places as the Potential for Feed. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(19), 153–162.


Download data is not yet available.


Wu T, Barrett J. Coastal land use management methodologies under pressure from climate change and population growth. Environmental Management. 2022;70:827–839.


Naser HA. Marine Ecosystem Diversity in the Arabian Gulf: Threats and Conservation [Internet]. Biodiversity - The Dynamic Balance of the Planet. In Tech; 2014.


Mark J. Costello, Chhaya Chaudhary, Marine Biodiversity, Biogeography, Deep-Sea Gradients, and Conservation, Current Biology, 2017;27(11):R511- R527.

ISSN 0960-9822.


Agrawal VC. Faunal diversity in India: Mammalia. In: (eds.) JRB. Alfred, AK. Das, AK. Sanyal, ENVIS Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 1998;460–469.

Rajpar MN, Zakaria M. Bird species abundance and their correlation ship with microclimate and habitat variables at Natural Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. Int. J. Zool Article ID 758573, 2011;17.

DOI: 10.1155/2011/758573

Pandiyan J, Naresh B, Nagarajan R. Temporal variations of shorebirds and benthic community, traditional saltpans of east coast of southern India. International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology. 2014;2(1):14−25.


Rajashekara S, Venkatesha MG. The diversity and abundance of waterbirds in lakes of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Biosystematica. 2010;4(2):63-73.

Malik DS, Joshi N. Habitat selection pattern of migratory avifauna in relation to nutrients in Asan wetland at Doon valley (Garhwal Himalaya), India. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 2013;4(10):1470−1475.

Nagarajan R, Thiyagesan K. Waterbirds and substrate quality of Pichavaram wetlands, Southern India. Ibis. 1996; 138(4):710−721.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1996.tb04773.x

Manikannan R, Ashokan S, Ali AMS. Abundance and factors affecting population characteristics of Waders (Charadriiformes) in Great Vedaranyam Swamp of Point Calimere Wildlife Santuary, South- East coast of India. International Journal of Ecosystem. 2012; 2(1):6−14.

DOI: 10.5923/j.ije.20120201.02

Abrantes KG, Sheaves M, Fries J. Estimating the value of tropical coastal wetland habitats to fisheries: Caveats and assumptions. PLoS One. 2019 Apr 17; 14(4):e0215350.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215350.

Erratum in: PLoS One. 2019 Oct 7;14(10): e0223797.

PMID: 30995258; PMCID: PMC6469798.

Andrikou-Charitidou A, Boutsis G, Karadimou E, Tsianou MA, Lazarina M, Kallimanis AS. Abiotic and Biotic Factors from the Past as Predictors of Alien Bird Richness and Temporal Beta-Diversity. Diversity. 2023;15:417.


Byamungu RM, Schleuning M, Ferger SW, Helbig-Bonitz M, Hemp A, Neu A, et al. Abiotic and biotic drivers of functional diversity and functional composition of bird and bat assemblages along a tropical elevation gradient. Diversity and Distributions. 2021;27:2344–2356.


Elafri A, Belhamra M, Houhamdi M. Comparing habitat preferences of a set of waterbird species wintering in the coastal wetlands of North Africa: implication for management. Ekológia (Bratislava). 2017; 36(2):158–171.

DOI: 10.1515/eko-2017-0014

Nyffeler M, Şekercioğlu ÇH, Whelan CJ. Insectivorous birds consume an estimated 400-500 million tons of prey annually. Naturwissenschaften. 2018;105(7-8):47.

DOI: 10.1007/s00114-018-1571-z

PMID: 29987431; PMCID: PMC6061143.

Chandra K, Bharti D, Kumar S, Raghunathan C, Gupta D, Alfred JRB, Chowdhury BR. Faunal Diversity in Ramsar Wetlands of India, 1-292 (Jointly Published by the Director, Zoological Survey of India and Wetland Division, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India); 2021.

Borges SD, Studies on the ecology of wader birds in the Mandovi estuary of Goa, India. Ph.D. Thesis, Goa University, Goa; 2002.

Ramesh R, Nammalwar P, Gowri VS. Project report on Database on Coastal information of Tamil Nadu. Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Govt. of Tamil Nadu. 2008;133.

Balakrishnan S, Srinivasan M, Mohanraj J. Diversity of some insect fauna in different coastal habitats of Tamil Nadu, Southeast coast of India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity. 2014;7:408-414.

Bassi N, Kumar MD, Sharma A, Pardha-Saradhi P. Status of wetlands in India: a review of extend ecosystem benefits, threats and management strategies. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2014;2:1−19.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2014.07.001

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Status of water qual¬ity in India 2007. New Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India; 2008.

Elphick CS, Oring LW. Conservation implications of flooding rice fields on winter waterbird communities. Agricultural Ecosystem Environment. 2003;94(1):17–29.

DOI: 10.1016/S0167-8809(02)00022-1

Strum KM, Reiter ME, Hartman CA, Iglecia MN, Kelsey TR, Hickey CM. Winter management of California’s ricefields to maximize waterbird habitat and minimize water use. Agricultural Eco¬system Environment. 2013;179:116–124.

DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.08.003

Sundar KSG, Subramanya SS. Bird use of rice fields in the Indian subcontinent. Waterbirds. 2010;33(Suppl.): 44–70.

DOI: 10.1675/063.033.s104

Acosta M, Mugica L, Blanco D, Lopez-Lanus B, Dias AR, Doodnath LW, Hurtado J. Birds of rice fields in the Americas. Waterbirds. 2010;33(Suppl.):105–122.

DOI: 10.1675/063.033.s108.

Pandiyan J, Asokan S, Thiyagesan K, Nagrajan R. Use of tidal flats in the Cauvery Delta region of SE India by shorebirds, gulls and terns. Wader Study Group Bull, 2006;109:105-111.

Williams DD, Williams NE. Aquatic insects in an estuarine environment: densities, distribution and salinity tolerance. Freshwater Biology, 1998;39:411-421.

O'Connor R.S, Kunin W E, Garratt MPD, Potts SG, Roy HE, Andrews C, Jones CM, Peyton J, Savage J, Harvey M, Morris RKA, Roberts SPM, Wright I, Vanbergen AJ, Carvell C. Monitoring insect pollinators and flower visitation: the effectiveness and feasibility of different survey methods. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2019;10(12):2129-2140.

ISSN 2041-210X.

DOI: Available at

Jagadeesan R, Pandiyan J. Temporal variations of large wading birds in the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2021;14(1):1-7.

Available:https://doi.or g/10.17485/IJST/v14i1.2251

Gupta BM, Jayakumar S, Duraimurugan V, Krishnappa K, Paramanandham J. Biodiversity Assessment in the Mangrove Forest of Karaikal District, Puducherry Union Territory. Project Report Phase I submitted to Government of Puducherry, Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Puducherry Pollution Control Committee- 5. 2021;1-43.

Sandilyan S. Adjacent Agricultural Lands of Pcihavaram Mangroves- Vital alternative habitat for waterbirds in Southern India. Global Journal of Environmental Research. 2014;8(2):21-25.

DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gjer.2014.8.2.831

Singh K, Maheshwari A, Dwivedi SV. Studies on avian diversity of banda university of agriculture and technology campus, Banda, Uttar pradesh, India. Int J Avian & Wildlife Biol. 2018;3(2):177‒ 180.

DOI: 10.15406/ijawb.2018.03.00082

Tanalgo KC, Pineda JA, Agravante ME, Amerol ZM. Bird Diversity and Structure in Different Land-use Types in Lowland South-Central Mindanao, Philippines. Trop Life Sci Res. 2015;26(2):85-103.

PMID: 26868712; PMCID: PMC4729410.

Losey JE, Vaughan M. The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. Bioscience. 2006;56:311– 323.

Şekercioğlu CH. Ecological significance of bird populations. Handbook of the birds of the world. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 2006a;11:15-51.

Yardi K, Bharucha E Girade S. Post-restoration monitoring of water quality and avifaunal diversity of Pashan Lake, Pune, India using a citizen science approaches. Freshwater Science. 2019;38:000-000.

DOI: 10.1086/703440

Welsh DA. Birds as indicators of forest stand condition in bored forest of eastern Canada. In: Diamond AW and Filion FL. The value of Birds. International council for Bird preservation. Cambridge, England. 1987;259-266.

Kiros S, Afework B and Legese K. A preliminary study on bird diversity and abundance from Wabe fragmented forests around Gubre subcity and Wolkite town, southwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Avian & Wildlife Biology. 2018; 3(5):333–340.