Modern Methods for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Classification: A Current Update


Published: 2023-09-06

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i193635

Page: 189-204

Shaik Asha Begum *

IPT, SPMVV, TIRUPATI and Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakur. Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India.

S. Joshna Rani

IPT, SPMVV, TIRUPATI, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Veena Yeruva

Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakur, Mangalagiri, AP, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The incidence of cancer-related deaths worldwide has increased by 66% since 1960, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A breast cancer diagnosis is predicted to occur in one in eight women in the US alone at some point in their lifetime. A BC diagnosis is typically made using high-end molecular bioimaging, ultrasound, and mammography. Unfortunately, these methods only discover BC after the fact. So there is still a need for both early and sophisticated molecular diagnostic techniques. Numerous histological and immuno-molecular studies conducted during the past ten years have shown that BC is exceedingly diverse in nature. Its cytological characteristics, growth pattern, and expression of important biomarkers in BC cells, such as hormone receptor markers, can be used to create cutting-edge diagnostic and treatment tools. Compositions, intracellular and extracellular environments, depth, shape, and structure of the cells. Currently, BC is treated with surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and focused radiation therapy. In order to determine the heterogeneity and recurrence score, which fully identifies the BC subtype at issue, a biopsied sample is next subjected to a number of multigene assays. We currently have seven prognostic multigene signature tests for BC that offer a risk profile that can spare low-risk patients from unnecessary treatments. Clinicopathological data should be integrated with genomic-imprint analysis, according to numerous comparative studies on multigene analysis. There is a good chance that current cohort studies like MINDACT, TAILORx, Trans-aTTOM, and many others will have a favourable effect on patient outcomes over the long term. This review presents a compendium of data on BC diagnoses and available therapies. The development of sophisticated biomarkers is also described.

Keywords: Breast cancer, mammography, BRCA genes, early detection, biomarkers of BC

How to Cite

Begum , S. A., Rani , S. J., & Yeruva , V. (2023). Modern Methods for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Classification: A Current Update. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(19), 189–204.


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