Evaluation of Phytochemical Compounds, In-vitro Antioxidant Properties, and Toxicity of Essential Oil from Myristica fragrans Houtt (Nutmeg) Using Danio rerio (Zebrafish)

PDF

Published: 2023-11-24

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i233776

Page: 155-169


Selvendran Thamaraiselvan

Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 05, Tamil Nadu, India.

Jeba Mercy Jeyaseelan

Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 05, Tamil Nadu, India.

Jose Vinoth Raja Antony Samy

Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 05, Tamil Nadu, India.

Ranjith Govindhan

Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 05, Tamil Nadu, India.

Keerthana Viswanathan

Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 05, Tamil Nadu, India.

Chandran Janani *

Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 05, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The Myristica fragrans Houtt (Nutmeg) a vital spice in the Myristicaceae family, extensively used in food flavouring and traditional medicine. The steam distillation is used to extract the essential oil, and the current research assessed the physical properties of essential oil evaluation of phytochemical composition, antioxidant properties, characterizations and toxicity on adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish). The results of physical analysis shown the quality of Nutmeg essential oil, the phytochemicals screening suggested the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids and quinones. The major antioxidant capacity in the essential oil was observed in the DPPH assay with an IC50 (inhibitory concentration, 50%) of 0.47 ± 0.19 µg/mL, outperforming the standard. The reducing power assay also exhibited substantial reducing ability (IC50 416.80 ± 0.006 µg/mL). Furthermore, excellent ferric reducing antioxidant power with an IC50 of 54.40 ± 0.01 µg/mL and demonstrated higher inhibition activity in the hydrogen peroxide assay (IC50 3.12 ± 0.17 µg/mL). The GC-MS analysis was shown the presence of the bioactive compound and major active compound Myristicin (13.06%) belonged to Phenylpropanoids group. FTIR revealed major functional groups present in essential oil. Toxicity evaluation in Danio rerio indicated without mortality and doesn’t give any adverse effects. The current study results suggested that Nutmeg essential oil has a potential antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress-related disorders. Identification of bioactive compounds supports its potential pharmacological uses, confirming its safety within appropriate concentrations.

Keywords: Antioxidants, essential oil, nutmeg, oxidative stress, toxicity, zebrafish


How to Cite

Thamaraiselvan, S., Jeyaseelan, J. M., Samy , J. V. R. A., Govindhan , R., Viswanathan , K., & Janani , C. (2023). Evaluation of Phytochemical Compounds, In-vitro Antioxidant Properties, and Toxicity of Essential Oil from Myristica fragrans Houtt (Nutmeg) Using Danio rerio (Zebrafish). UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(23), 155–169. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i233776

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Kamal FZ, Stanciu GD, Lefter R, Cotea VV, Niculaua M, Ababei DC, et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ammi visnaga L. essential oil. Antioxidants. 2022;11(2):347.

Xu XY, Meng JM, Mao QQ, Shang A, Li BY, Zhao CN, et al. Effects of tannase and ultrasound treatment on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of green tea extract. Antioxidants. 2019; 8(9):362.

Thitinarongwate W, Mektrirat R, Nimlamool W, Khonsung P, Pikulkaew S, Okonogi S, et al. Phytochemical and safety evaluations of Zingiber ottensii Valeton essential oil in zebrafish embryos and rats. Toxics. 2021;9(5):102.

Souri E, Amin G, Farsam H, Jalalizadeh H, Barezi S. Screening of thirteen medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7(2):149-154.

Matulyte I, Jekabsone A, Jankauskaite L, Zavistanaviciute P, Sakiene V, Bartkiene E, et al. The essential oil and hydrolats from Myristica fragrans seeds with magnesium aluminometasilicate as excipient: Antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Foods. 2020; 9(1):37.

Kholibrina CR, Aswandi A. The aromatherapy formulation of essential oils in reducing stress and blood pressure on human. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing. 2021;914(1): 012072.

Nugraha APHS, Widyawaty ED, Hernanto FF, Indrianita V, Kristianto H. Effect of nutmeg and lavender essential oil on blood pressure in the elderly with hypertension. Pal Arch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology. 2020;17(6):10076-10083.

van Wyk AS, Prinsloo G. Health, safety and quality concerns of plant-based traditional medicines and herbal remedies. South African Journal of Botany. 2020; 133:54-62.

Parasuraman S. Toxicological screening. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. 2011;2(2):74.

Modarresi Chahardehi A, Arsad H, Lim V. Zebrafish as a successful animal model for screening toxicity of medicinal plants. Plants. 2020;9(10):1345.

Jayasinghe CD, Jayawardena UA. Toxicity assessment of herbal medicine using zebrafish embryos: A systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2019.

Iko W, Omeje KO, Ozougwu VE, Eze SOO, Chilaka FC. Endo-1, 4-D-glucanohydrolase assisted extraction of essential oil from the seed kernels of Nutmeg by using a two-step protocol. Bio-Research. 2022;20(2):1522-1532.

Coulibaly A, Hema DM, Sawadogo I, Toe M, Kiendrebeogo M, Nébié RC. Physico-chemical properties of Ocimum americanum L. essential oil from Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2023;17(2):701-709.

Rahardiyan D, Poluakan M, Moko EM. Physico-chemical properties of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt) of North Sulawesi nutmeg. Fullerene Journal of Chemistry. 2020;5(1):23-31.

Alrefiee AA, Mohammed AA, Mustafa SE. Effect of adding basil essential oil on camel meat burger's shelf life during storage at four c for nine days.

Elizabeth Babatunde D, Otusemade GO, Elizabeth Ojewumi M, Agboola O, Oyeniyi E, et al. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of neem leaves and lemon grass essential oil extracts. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology. 2019;10(3).

Samy JVRA, Sayanam RRA, Balasubramanian C, Vijayakumar N, Kim SJ, Vijayakumar S, et al. Effect of a polyherbal formulation on L-thyroxine induced hyperthyroidism in a rat model: In vitro and in vivo analysis and identification of bioactive phytochemicals. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2023;237:124140.

Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AMS, Ismail S, Man CN. Chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities of the essential oils of Myristica fragrans and Morinda citrifolia. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2012;92(3):593-597.

Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Majid AMSA, Nassar ZDM. Antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of the essential oils of Myristica fragrans and Morinda citrifolia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;5(4):294-298.

De Soysa EJS, Abeysinghe DC, Dharmadasa RM. Comparison of phytochemicals antioxidant activity and essential oil content of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.(Myrtaceae) with four selected spice crop species. World J. Agric. Res. 2016; 4(6):158-161.

Chahrazed E, Hadjer HM, Souad A, Menad A, Francisco L, Ignacio B, et al. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of a polar extract from Pituranthos battandieri Maire. Int. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. Res. 2017;9(4):559-566.

Li Y, Kong D, Lin X, Xie Z, Bai M, Huang S, et al. Quality evaluation for essential oil of Cinnamomum verum leaves at different growth stages based on GC–MS, FTIR and microscopy. Food Analytical Methods. 2016;9:202-212.

Khan BN, Ashfaq Y, Hussain N, Atique U, Aziz T, Alharbi M, et al. Elucidating the effects of heavy metals contamination on vital organ of fish and migratory birds found at fresh water ecosystem. Heliyon. 2023;9(11).

Nikolic V, Nikolic L, Dinic A, Gajic I, Urosevic M, Stanojevic L, et al. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2021;24(2):218-227.

Todirascu-Ciornea E, El-Nashar HA, Mostafa NM, Eldahshan OA, Boiangiu RS, Dumitru G, et al. Schinus terebinthifolius essential oil attenuates scopolamine-induced memory deficits via cholinergic modulation and antioxidant properties in a zebrafish model. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2019.

Fakhlaei R, Selamat J, Razis AFA, Sukor R, Ahmad S, Amani Babadi A, et al. In vivo toxicity evaluation of sugar adulterated heterotrigona itama honey using zebrafish model. Molecules. 2021;26(20):6222.

Canedo A, de Jesus LWO, Bailão EFLC, Rocha TL. Micronucleus test and nuclear abnormality assay in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Past, present, and future trends. Environmental Pollution. 2021;290:118019.

Hussain A, Khan AA, Ali M, Zamani GY, Iqbal Z, Ullah Q, et al. In-vitro and In-vivo assessment of toxic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus leaves extract. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society. 2022; 67(2):5484-5489.

Mohammadi H, Manouchehri H, Changizi R, Bootorabi F, Khorramizadeh MR. Concurrent metformin and silibinin therapy in diabetes: Assessments in zebrafish (Danio rerio) animal model. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2020;19: 1233-1244.

Samy JVRA, Venkatesan A, Bhuvaneshwari V, Mani R, Natesan V. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of prunetin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 2022;458-466.

Gyimah E, Dong X, Qiu W, Zhang Z, Xu H. Sublethal concentrations of triclosan elicited oxidative stress, DNA damage, and histological alterations in the liver and brain of adult zebrafish. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020;27:17329-17338.

Ashokkumar K, Murugan M, Dhanya MK, Sathyan T, Raj S, Mathews N. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of Zingiber officinale essential oil and extracts. In Ethnopharmacological investigation of Indian spices IGI. Global. 2020;62-84.

Ibrahim MA, Cantrell CL, Jeliazkova EA, Astatkie T, Zheljazkov VD. Utilization of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed hydrodistillation time to produce essential oil fractions with varied compositions and pharmacological effects. Molecules. 2020;25(3):565.

Coulibaly A, Hema DM, Sawadogo I, Toe M, Kiendrebeogo M, Nébié RC. Physico-chemical properties of Ocimum americanum L. essential oil from Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2023;17(2):701-709.

Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Ismail S. Studies on the phytochemical properties and brine shrimp toxicity of essential oil extracted from Myristica fragrans Houtt.(Nutmeg). Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2012;15(1):53-57.

Bharadwaj A, Garg AGG. Phytochemical and antibacterial potential of seed extract of M. fragrans with reference to its oil activity. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology. 2020;43-51.

Xi X, Huang J, Zhang S, Lu Q, Fang Z, Li C, et al. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complex of Myristica fragrans Houtt.(nutmeg) essential oil with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Food Chemistry. 2023;136316.

Trifan A, Zengin G, Korona-Glowniak I, Skalicka-Woźniak K, Luca SV. Essential Oils and Sustainability: In Vitro Bioactivity Screening of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Post-Distillation By-Products. Plants. 2023; 12(9):1741.

Sehaki C, Jullian N, Choque E, Dauwe R, Fontaine JX, Molinie R, et al. Profiling of essential oils from the Leaves of Pistacia lentiscus Collected in the Algerian Region of Tizi-Ouzou: Evidence of Chemical Variations Associated with climatic contrasts between Littoral and Mountain samples. Molecules. 2022;27(13):4148.

Asante Ampadu GA, Mensah JO, Darko G, Borquaye LS. Essential Oils from the Fruits and Leaves of Spondias mombin Linn.: Chemical Composition, Biological Activity, and Molecular Docking Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2022.

Mousavi SM, Hashemi SA, Ramakrishna S, Esmaeili H, Bahrani S, Koosha M, et al. Green synthesis of supermagnetic Fe3O4–MgO nanoparticles via Nutmeg essential oil toward superior anti-bacterial and anti-fungal performance. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2019; 54:101352.

Yudhistira B, Sulaimana AS, Punthi F, Chang CK, Lung CT, Santoso SP, et al. Cold Plasma-Based Fabrication and Characterization of Active Films Containing Different Types of Myristica fragrans Essential Oil Emulsion. Polymers. 2022; 14(8):1618.

Matulyte I, Marksa M, Ivanauskas L, Kalvėnienė Z, Lazauskas R, Bernatoniene J. GC-MS analysis of the composition of the extracts and essential oil from Myristica fragrans seeds using magnesium aluminometasilicate as excipient. Molecules. 2019;24(6):1062.

Dupuy N, Molinet J, Mehl F, Nanlohy F, Le Dréau Y, Kister J. Chemometric analysis of mid infrared and gas chromatography data of Indonesian nutmeg essential oils. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013;43: 596-601.

Indrayanto G, Putra GS, Suhud F. Validation of in-vitro bioassay methods: Application in herbal drug research. Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology. 2021;46:273-307.

Gupta E. Elucidating the phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg). In Ethnopharmacological investigation of Indian spices. IGI Global. 2020;52-61.

Beckerman B, Persaud H. Nutmeg overdose: spice not so nice. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019;46:44-46.

Rashan L, Efferth T, Bishir M, Hediyal TA, Essa MM, Babu S. Acute, genetic, and target organ toxicity profiling of Frankincense essential oil from Boswellia sacra in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Archives of Clinical Toxicology. 2023;5(1): 12-21.

Rashidian G, Bahrami Gorji S, Farsani MN, Prokić MD, Faggio C. The oak (Quercus brantii) acorn as a growth promotor for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): growth performance, body composition, liver enzymes activity and blood biochemical parameters. Natural Product Research. 2020;34(17):2413-2423.

Noureen A, Jabeen F, Wajid A, Kazim MZ, Safdar N, Cappello T. Natural Bioactive Phytocompounds to Reduce Toxicity in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: A Challenge to Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials. Water. 2023;15(6):1152.

Poorbagher MRM, Karimi E, Oskoueian E. Hepatoprotective effect of nanoniosome loaded Myristica fragrans phenolic compounds in mice‐induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2022;26(21):5517-5527.